2017 ASLA 通用设计类荣誉奖:SteelStacks艺术文化园区,美国伯利恒 / WRT

充分适应城市的工业历史

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“一个非常成功的项目,它充分适应了城市的工业历史:不仅没有将其抛却,反而使其充分地展露出来。”

“A very successful project that fits in with the industrial past, not blowing it away but actually playing off it.”
– 2017 Awards Jury

来自ASLA对gooood的分享。
SteelStacks Arts + Cultural Campus by WRT
Appreciation towards ASLA for providing the following description:

 

项目陈述
PROJECT STATEMENT

SteelStacks艺术文化园区是由伯利恒钢铁厂改造而成:原先废弃的工业场地被转变为一个富有生机、艺术和娱乐气息的城市场所,激发了该区域的活力。该项目通过致敬场地的历史性和完整性,例证了设计对于社区复兴的重要作用,同时使人们有机会再次站立于伯利恒钢铁厂标志性的炼钢炉脚下。项目使改造后的钢铁厂和新建的社区及商业街实现了无缝衔接,提升了整个伯利恒市和李海山谷地区的社区凝聚力。

The SteelStacks Arts + Cultural Campus rose from the shadows of the former Bethlehem Steel Plant, invigorating the region through the transformation of an abandoned industrial site into a vibrant, urban, arts and entertainment destination. The project demonstrates the power of design to catalyze community revitalization, by paying homage to the history and integrity of the site, and allowing visitors the opportunity to once again stand at the foot of the iconic Bethlehem Steel blast furnaces. The project seamlessly knits together the reinvented steel plant site with an established neighborhood and its commercial corridor, building a heightened sense of community across the City of Bethlehem and Lehigh Valley region.

 

▲场地平面图(1期+2期工程),site plan (phase1+phase2) 

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

伯利恒钢铁集团是一家活跃于20世纪的重头工业集团,在全球各地都设有工厂。集团1857年成立于宾夕法尼亚州Lehigh Valley的Lehigh河岸,占地1800英亩。1995年,集团停止了在伯利恒市的冶炼活动并关闭了厂房,从而终止了当地的工业历史,以及成千上万蓝领居民与工厂密不可分的生活模式。为了使场地能够在未来继续使用,园区基于废弃场地的既有肌理,对部分关键性的结构进行了改造,为其带来全新的视角和体验,从而使园区成为了能够适应21世纪需求的独具特色的社区空间。

占地9.5英亩的SteelStacks艺术文化园区坐落在标志性的炼钢炉正前方,这5座炉子曾“称霸”伯利恒的城市天际线长达一个世纪。艺术文化园区位于2000年建立的、面积为126英亩的伯利恒厂区内,后者致力于为当地带来20年的税收增长。伯利恒厂区是美国最大的棕色地块的一部分:1800英亩的旧钢铁厂房占据了伯利恒市地产面积的20%(全市人口数量为75000)。在过去的10年中,伯利恒市的再开发部门对位于前厂房东侧地块的新工业园和联合运输设施实行了全面监管。伯利恒工业园占据了前钢铁厂的西侧地块,与发展完善的南部城区相对而立。旧厂房中最具历史价值的建筑物便位于此处,其中包括5座20层楼高的炼钢炉(SteelStacks)。

艺术文化园区与2011年7月正式开放,但其视野和规模还在不断地扩大,目前已经完成了3期工程,包括21世纪公园(2009)、Levitt展馆与露台剧场(2012年开放,占地9.5英亩)以及Hoover-Mason栈桥的一期工程(2015年开放,包括25000平方英尺的空中人行步道)。景观设计公司担任了园区、广场以及Levitt展馆地面的初期设计顾问。顾问团队的成员来自各种不同的领域,包括艺术家、灯光设计师、平面设计师、工程师以及土壤修复专家等,他们还与建筑师团队共同完成了Levitt Pavilion的结构设计,以及Hoover-Mason栈桥的设计。与此同时,建筑师和工程师还负责了ArtsQuest大楼、PBS39大楼以及游客中心的建筑设计。

改造的关键部分是构建一条贯穿园区的曲线型道路,同时要创造出足够的空间,以满足Levitt Pavilion露天剧场容纳2500名观众的需要,并使其与园区主入口Founders Way位于同一条轴线上。这一做法不仅将带来独特的交通流线,同时也能使炼钢炉成为一处强大的背景。增建的Hoover-Mason栈桥将使游客在空中步道上充分享受园区的最佳视野,将园区周围的历史建筑和重要景观尽收眼底。

在统一园区景观的同时,相互独立的区域包含了多样且灵活的功能空间(据2016年统计,每年有超过150万名游客参园区活动)包括:

• 面向游客中心的入口广场,用于聚集客流及场地定位。
• 一个与ArtsQuest大楼相连的活动空间,用作小型表演、室外用餐以及室内外活动的额外场地。
• 一个朝向PBS 39大楼的阅读和剧场空间,用于户外活动。
• 将公共艺术置入社区和场地当中。该项资金由国家艺术基金会提供。
• 家庭野餐及游乐空间,位于鼓风机房的对面。
• Hoover-Mason栈桥,即高架的人行步道,使游客能够沿着一条钢铁材质的路径穿越整个园区。
• 分布于整个园区的讲解及寻路标识,包括交互式的数字程序,提供语音导览、历史讲解以及包含大量历史照片及资料的数据库。[hoovermason.com]
• Levitt Pavilion露天剧场,作为园区的核心区域,这里每年夏天会举办50场免费的家庭音乐会,同时在没有活动的时候作为社区的娱乐场地。

项目的主要设计意图是打造非凡的场景和设施,充分利用炼钢炉的壮观尺度,使其为全年的节日、艺术活动和音乐表演提供背景。场地从白天到傍晚再到夜间的空间体验变化也至关重要,它将为当地及全世界的家庭和个人带来热情友好的公共空间。

作为伯利恒钢铁厂中的一部分,新的园区将通过对场地历史完整性的保护来突显场地的特征以及伯利恒的社区性,使游客(包括曾经居住在此的炼钢厂工人和他们的亲属)能够回归场地,并有机会再次站立于标志性的炼钢炉的脚下。

考虑到夏季的天气,入口广场、野餐及游乐空间均种植了树木,同时保证了从炼钢炉往向集会和表演区域的视野不受阻碍。地面层使用的材料包括自生锈的耐候钢、镀锌钢、深色地砖、花岗岩、混凝土以及熔融粘结骨料,共同塑造了粗糙而起伏的场地特征。

Hoover-Mason栈桥谨慎地建立于既有的结构之上。基于原先的铁路轨道,新的表皮和花槽依附在全新的钢结构之上,耐候钢材料与炼钢炉的材质形成了呼应,同时使步道看上去宛如“漂浮”在结构上方。新与旧的并置使栈桥成为一个独特的全新结构。由金属栅板构成的步道在上空与铁轨保持平行,促使桥上的游客俯瞰下方,从而对既有的场地形成认知。

场地的状况为项目带来了大量环境上的挑战:大部分的土地无法进行挖掘。既有建筑的地基进行了大面积拆除,将可渗透的地表材料替换为不可渗透的材料,同时尽可能缩减了暴雨径流。原先荒芜的场地种上了植物,使园区的生态量得以增加。低等级的照明更降低了能量消耗。从社会层面上看,项目充分融入了当地社区,为伯利恒未来的智慧发展提供了“城市绿地”。该项目的成功之处在于它提高了园区经济的可持续性,促进了私人企业的发展以及旧建筑以和周边场地的利用,同时为社区中既有的企业提供了支持。

该设计为场地带来了惊人且积极的影响,最重要的一点是,它为当地居民和游客建立了一种社区意识,让原本废弃的场地重新恢复了活力。园区成为了伯利恒游客中心的前院,并促进了与之合作的非营利组织(PBS39:Lehigh Valley的公共演播厅,以及 ArtsQuest:一家提供艺术教学和艺术表演的机构)在公共领域的发展。这些组织如今与园区中新成立的非营利组织(包括Friends of Levitt Pavilion SteelStacks和Penn State Master Gardeners)以及Discover Lehigh Valley 达成了合作,共同为园区提供景观维护、资金筹措以及游客服务等。在环境影响方面,共赢式的发展模式使这一重新开发的项目兼具了创新性和可持续性。

 

▲在伯利恒钢铁厂停工20年之后,场地被改造为全新的SteelStacks艺术及文化园区,炼钢炉和其它具有历史意义的钢厂建筑被保留下来,20 years after Bethlehem Steel ceased operation, the site has been transformed to the SteelStacks Arts & Cultural Campus that features preserved blast furnaces and other historic steel mill buildings.

 

▲园区将历史建筑与现代建筑并置于开阔的场地中,包括作为表演场地的Levitt Pavilion露天剧场,The campus features a mixture of historic and modern structures surrounding open space that includes an outdoor performing arts amphitheater, the Levitt Pavilion.

 

▲钢制楼梯和升降梯成为了园区内的新地标,将游客引至Hoover-Mason栈桥公园:一座1/3英里长的空中步道,An iconic steel staircase and elevator have become a landmark on campus, welcoming visitors to the Hoover-Mason Trestle Park, a 1/3 mile long elevated pedestrian promenade.

 

▲伯利恒游客中心位于改造后的仓库前方。楼梯在上方与步道相连,造型宛如“订书钉”的定制灯具将游客从栈桥引向Levitt Pavilion露天剧场,The plaza in front of the restored Stock House, now home to the Bethlehem Visitor Center. The staircase bridges over the walkway, guiding visitors to the Levitt Pavilion along with “Staples”, custom pedestrian light fixtures.

 

▲炼钢炉为观众提供了一个戏剧化的背景。园区自2011年春季开放以来,已有超过一百万人参与了1750多场音乐表演、电影放映以及社区节日的庆祝活动,The Blast Furnaces create a dramatic backdrop for welcoming audiences. Since its opening in spring 2011, more than one million people have enjoyed 1,750+ musical performances, films, community celebrations and festivals.

 

▲园区内的广场提供了各种各样的表演和活动场地。ArtsQuest大楼上反射出炼钢炉的影子,为音乐表演提供了别具一格的舞台场景,ArtsPlazas on the SteelStacks Campus provide venues for a variety of performances and events. Music performances on the ArtsQuest Plaza have created unique stage settings by reflecting views of the Blast Furnaces on the ArtsQuest Building.

 

▲入口大门处巨大的“HMT” 黄色标识开启了游客在36英尺高空的旅程。这一高高架起的公园开放于2015年6月25日,A big, yellow “HMT” sign on the entrance gate welcomes visitors to the journey, 36 feet above the ground. The elevated park opened to the public on June 25, 2015.

 

▲Hoover-Mason栈桥位于伯利恒钢厂原有的铁轨上方;曾经的栈桥被用于向炼钢炉运送材料,The Hoover-Mason Trestle is placed above and in some places next to the former elevated Bethlehem Steel rail line; the original Trestle was used to deliver raw materials to the blast furnaces to produce steel

 

▲三座楼梯中的一座提供了一处观景平台,使游客能够看到鼓风机房内的景象,巨大的引擎和轮子均在此得以保留,One of three stairs provides a viewing platform where visitors enjoy the interior view of the former Blower House, where rows of giant gas powered engines and wheels remain from the time when they stopped their operations

 

▲历史讲解标识贯穿了整个园区,讲述了关于旧钢铁厂房的史实,使游客对脚下的道路产生一种敬意,Historic Interpretation signs are installed all the way through the park with historic and educational facts about the old Steel Plant grounds, giving visitors a unique appreciation for the hallowed ground they are walking over.

 

▲栈桥上的花槽围绕着既有的树木设置,季节性的植物为全年带来不同的观赏乐趣,使游客能够欣赏到多样且充满变化的栈桥风景,The planters are laid out by framing around the exiting trees on the trestle structure. A highly seasonable native plant selection provides year-round interest and entertains visitors with diverse and dynamic views on the Trestle.

 

▲金属材质的步道平行于既有铁轨的路径,夜晚的灯光将下方巨大的箱体凸显出来,Respecting the linearity of the rail tracks, new metal grating walkways run parallel immediately above the existing tracks and the lighting highlights the large existing bins below at night time.

 

▲炼钢炉和园区在灯光下显得格外亮丽,即使在没有特殊活动的时间里也吸引着游客前来观赏,The blast furnaces and Steelstacks Campus are beautifully lit at night, featuring historical elements, and drawing visitors to the site even when there are no events scheduled.

 

▲栈桥上的木制座椅装有高大的靠背,为游客提供了观赏历史性建筑的地点,Wood seating elements with high-backs are laid out through the HMT at the point where we intend to highlight specific views for the historic elements and site surroundings.

 

▲从Sands赌场望向园区,炼钢炉背后是Lehigh河与伯利恒城区。Levitt Pavilion露天剧场每年要举办超过50场免费音乐会,Campus looking from Sands Casino, with the Lehigh River and Bethlehem neighborhoods behind Blast Furnaces. More than 50 free concerts are held at the Levitt Pavilion each year

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

The Bethlehem Steel Corporation was a 20th century industrial powerhouse that operated facilities around the globe. It was founded in Pennsylvania’s Lehigh Valley in 1857, occupying 1,800 acres along the Lehigh River. In 1995, the Bethlehem Steel Corporation stopped its steel-making operations in Bethlehem, closed the plant and brought to an end a long history that shaped the livelihoods, family life, and blue-collar culture of thousands of Lehigh Valley residents. In an effort to revitalize the site for future uses, the campus worked within the existing fabric of the abandoned site, while selectively transforming key site elements to offer new perspectives and experiences, creating a unique community-space for the 21st century.

The 9.5 acre SteelStacks Arts + Cultural Campus is located directly in front of the monumental blast furnaces that have dominated the Bethlehem skyline for more than a century. The Campus sits within Bethlehem Works, a 126-acre parcel that was established as a 20-year tax incremental finance district (TIF) in 2000. Bethlehem Works is part of the largest brownfield in the U.S.: the 1,800-acre former steel plant operated by Bethlehem Steel Corp, which occupies 20 percent of the City of Bethlehem’s real estate (city population: 75,000).

Over the past 10 years, the Bethlehem Redevelopment Authority oversaw the development of new industrial parks and intermodal transportation facilities on large parcels at the eastern end of the former plant. Bethlehem Works occupies the western end of the former plant, and is nestled against the city’s well-established South Side neighborhood, which includes the former plant’s oldest surviving and most historically significant structures including five 20-story-tall blast furnaces (the SteelStacks).

The Campus officially opened in July, 2011, but the scope and size of the campus is part of an ongoing transformation. Currently, three phases have been completed: 21st Century Park (2009), the Levitt Pavilion and Amphitheater, an outdoor amphitheater designed integrally with the campus (Opened 2012 – 9.5 Acres), and Phase 1 of the Hoover-Mason Trestle (Opened 2015 – 25,000sf elevated pedestrian promenade).

The Landscape Architect was the prime consultant for the design of the campus, plaza, and Levitt Pavilion grounds. In this capacity, the LA managed a multidisciplinary team of consultants including artists, lighting designers, graphic designers, engineers and soil remediation specialists. The LA also coordinated the work of an in-house architectural team working on the Levitt Pavilion structure and the Hoover-Mason Trestle, as well as architects and engineers working simultaneously on the ArtsQuest, PBS39, and Visitor Center buildings.

A key transformation was curving the roadway that traverses the campus, which created the requisite space for the 2,500-person Levitt amphitheater and its placement on axis with Founders Way, the main entry from the town. Not only does this create a unique circulation experience, but it allows the SteelStacks to serve as a powerful backdrop. The addition of the Hoover-Mason Trestle allowed visitors the ability to experience an entirely new vantage point on the site, from a promenade designed to frame and focus views outward toward items of historical and contextual importance around the campus.

While the campus is a unifying landscape, discrete areas were conceived to facilitate a diverse, flexible, and active range of programs (as of 2016, over 1.5-million visitors participate in campus events each year), including:

· An entry court facing the Visitor Center for gathering and site orientation;
· A “flex” event space adjoining the ArtsQuest building for smaller performances, outdoor dining, and overflow event space for indoor/outdoor events;
· A reading and theater space facing PBS 39 for outdoor programs
· The integration of public art to engage the community and site, funded by the National Endowment of the Arts
· A family picnic and play area facing a section of the Blower House
· The Hoover-Mason Trestle, an elevated pedestrian promenade which allows visitors to walk through the industrial archeology of the site along the same path that the raw materials to produce steel were delivered
·Interpretive signage and wayfinding devices throughout the project, including an interactive digital application to deliver audio tours, oral histories, and a database of historical images and interpretive data [hoovermason.com]
· The Levitt Pavilion amphitheater as the campus centerpiece, which organizes 50 free family-friendly concerts each summer, and also functions as a community playfield during non-events

The overriding design intent was to create an extraordinary setting capturing the stunning scale and mass of the SteelStacks as a backdrop for year-round festivals, art events, and music performances. Of paramount importance was the transformation of the site from daytime to evening and nighttime experiences, creating a welcoming public center that draws families and individuals, locally and regionally.

Much like this area of the site worked as a component of the much larger Bethlehem Steel plant, the repurposed campus serves to enhance the site and the community of Bethlehem, by preserving the history and integrity of the site, and allowing visitors [including an entire legacy of former Bethlehem Steel workers and their families] the opportunity to once again inhabit the site, and stand at the foot of the iconic Bethlehem SteelStacks.

In consideration of summer weather, shade trees were located by the entry court, picnic and play areas of the plaza, allowing the SteelStacks to remain in full view from the main gathering and performance areas. Self-rusting weathering steel, galvanized steel, dark pavers, granite, concrete and molten-like bonded aggregate define the material palette at the ground plane in an effort to evoke the tough and rugged spirit of the place.

The Hoover-Mason Trestle structure was designed to tread-lightly over the existing structure. All new surfaces and planters are supported by a new steel structure that attaches at the location of the existing rail tracks, and the new structural steel was designed in weathering steel to blend with the existing SteelStacks, and allow the walkways to visually float above the structure, as a clearly identifiable new structure, juxtaposing new and old. Respecting the linearity of the rail tracks, metal-grating walkways run parallel immediately above the tracks, encouraging people to look down and acknowledge the existing site.

The site offered many environmental challenges, due to the presence of soils that could not be disturbed or penetrated, except in isolated cases. Large areas of existing building foundations were removed, exchanging impervious cover for pervious, and minimizing the generation of storm runoff. Plantings were brought to the site where none existed beforehand, increasing the site’s biomass, and a low level of illumination was accepted as a way to minimize energy consumption. Socially, the project has engaged the local community, offering a “town green” for future uses that will bring new urban life to the heart of Bethlehem in support of regional smart growth initiatives. The project’s success is contributing to the sustainability of the campus’s tenants, spurring private development in abandoned buildings and sites adjacent to the campus, while also bolstering existing businesses in the surrounding neighborhood.

The design brings a tremendous positive impact to the site, most importantly revitalizing an abandoned site in a way that both educates and creates a sense of community for both local inhabitants, and visitors. The campus serves as a forecourt for the Bethlehem Visitor Center, and has enabled its nonprofit partners (PBS39 – , the Lehigh Valley’s public television studio; and ArtsQuest – an institution providing year-round art education and performances) to expand their public programs, which has strengthened these organizations. They now work with newly established campus nonprofits (including Friends of Levitt Pavilion SteelStacks, and Penn State Master Gardeners) and Discover Lehigh Valley to provide landscape maintenance, funding, and support services to visitors. Their combined success, along with an ongoing commitment from the city, ensures that this redevelopment project is not only innovative but also sustainable in terms of its environmental impact.

Artist (Fire Sculptures)
Elena Colombo
Acoustical
Metropolitan Acoustics LLC
Theatrical Lighting
Environmental Acoustics, Inc.
Construction
Boyle Construction Inc. (HMT, Levitt Pavilion and Amphitheater, PNC Plaza)
Alvin H. Butz, Inc. (ArtsQuest Plaza, PBS39 Plaza, Parking)
Sub-Consultants
Preservation Architect: Artefact, Inc.
Structural Engineering: Simpson Gumpertz & Heger [SGH]
Structural / Survey Engineering: Maser Consulting P.A.
Civil / Environmental Engineering: HDR Engineering
Structural / Restoration Engineering: Klein and Hoffman, Inc.
MEP Engineering: Lehigh Valley Engineering, Inc.
Lighting Designer: L’Observatoire International
Historic Interpretation Design: Local Project
Historic Interpretation Design: Bluecadet
Horticulture Consultant: Patrick Cullina

More:ASLAWRT



发表评论

7 评论

  1. 总感觉这种完全保留废弃工厂的做法后期维护成本会很高,而且这种钢铁厂随着后期腐蚀各种因素也会不安全

  2. 默默地看了下我身后的东郊记忆

  3. 感觉纪念属性要大过休闲属性

  4. Profile Photo

    exchanging impervious cover for pervious 我相信认真读的人都明白我为啥要把这句话拎出来

  5. 国外这种音乐会简直是日常操作····

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