2017 ASLA 居住设计杰出奖:伯明翰居住区 / Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

现代极简主义居住区景观设计

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“这是一个倾注了设计师/景观师全力的巅峰之作,充分实现了设计之初的愿景”。
–2017 评奖委员会

“It’s the culmination of a patron investing in a designer or landscape architect in their own vision of where they want to take this.”
–2017 Awards Jury

 

来自ASLA对gooood的分享。
Birmingham Residence by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture.
Appreciation towards ASLA for providing the following description:

 

项目概述
PROJECT STATEMENT 

设计师为伯明翰住宅的业主不仅打造了一个充满活力的居住空间,而且充分地满足了他们对艺术收藏空间的需要。该项目坐落在密歇根州底特律郊区的一个安逸街区中,体现了业主崇尚冒险的品味和当地钢铁业的历史。设计之初,景观设计师从当代艺术中获取灵感,将传统设计元素在私家园林中做了重新诠释,塑造出了能够补充和软化建筑生硬面的视觉效果。对于这个设计,设计团队和业主都表示,这里的景观设计要突破传统材料和做法的限制,塑造出一个蕴含创新手法和技艺的作品。

The landscape design for the Birmingham Residence sculpts space into a dynamic context for the client’s home and art collection. Situated in a quiet neighborhood in the suburbs of Detroit, Michigan, the residence embodies the client’s adventurous taste and celebrates the region’s historical ties to the steel industry. From the beginning, the landscape architect drew inspiration from contemporary art, reinterpreting the traditional elements of the private garden and creating spaces that complement and soften the visual language of the architecture.  The shared belief that a unique personal vision can be embodied in the landscape and that residential landscape design need not be bound by conventional materials and practices guided the design team and client, motivating them to stretch the creative and technical design of the project.

▲场地平面, site plan Photo Credit: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture 

 

项目叙述
PROJECTY NARRATIVE

内容, context

客户是一个前卫的时尚冒险家,分别在伯明翰和纽约拥有两个设计精品店,她希望能给这个密西根的郊外住宅塑造一种独特气质。这就需要景观设计与其建筑风格相协调,并且使内庭设计能够融入到周边的郊野环境中。女主人成长于密歇根州的工业环境中,丈夫从事建材生意,常与客户有私下往来,因此他们的日常活动也要考虑到这个项目当中。在设计过程中,建筑师和景观师密切合作,意在使景观和建筑风格契合,能体现出精湛的工艺和高度的现代感。

设计目标和挑战 Design Goals + Challenges

在这个住宅的外立面完成后,景观团队着手参与到了这个项目当中。首先,景观师在建筑外边界确定的基础上,利用周边自然环境特色,设计了一个与外环境和谐统一的大背景;同时使建筑空间和室外空间的功能划分更清晰。设计团队一致认为景观的风格要与建筑风格相一致,因此,通过将起居空间延伸到室外的方式保持风格的一致性,并运用种植设计辅佐这个室外连廊有效地软化建筑的生硬感。

基础, the plinth

由于建筑场地设在路旁的山坡上。因此,景观师认为建筑体的基座部分有必要向外拓展以便形成一个活动平台。另外,他们用锈板在平台上建造了一个廊架,构成房屋与户外活动空间的过渡。基座风格与建筑保持一致,并洗练地传达出了统一的效果。

规模+运动, scale + movement

抬高的平台不仅将建筑物引入视野,还扩大了使用空间,营造出从街道到入口的过渡空间。这个项目的景观设计细致地考虑了户外空间的规模和比例,设计出了一个宜人尺度的过渡空间。为了营造出合理适宜的外部景观来软化建筑,设计师还收集大量相应的设计尺度和场地信息。此外,这个高水准的景观空间不但包括艺术设计,座椅,丰富的植被和开敞的场地,并且还具备良好的人车分离设施。

这个设计中精心设计的路径不仅增加了业主和访客的亲近感,而且还引导了观者从不同视角观赏内庭。去往内庭的游客沿着车行道可以很容易地走到建筑南侧的白桦林,再沿着旁边的台阶就能到房子的东房山。如果沿须芒草旁的小径径直向前,可以看到摆放着的一座锈板雕塑。而路的尽头,就是被巧妙地安插在建筑夹缝中建筑正门。

业主也可以选择从不同的路径回家。从访者入口开车进入的话,车行道的尽头就是独立车库,这里的特别之处在于梁的设计,它们看上去像是从地下冒出来的。而一系列大型柱体元素不仅划分了会客空间,同时又以雕塑的形式遮蔽了车库。这个雕塑庭院可谓是内庭院的主要入口也是交通枢纽。由于雕塑的点缀和皂荚树的严密树荫,使得这个雕塑花园不仅可以作为展廊使用,也是主人生活空间的外部延伸。

材质, texture

景观师在这个项目中格外注重空间秩序,通过引入极简主义设计理念加强了景观和建筑的关系;其次,通过纹理个性分明的植物和建造材料突出了季相变化。利用锈板挡土墙呼应这一地区的钢铁业。利用当地小须芒草的粗旷线条,打破锈板和混凝土的生硬感。浓密的树篱使建筑轮廓更佳突出,同时软化了建筑周边死板的步行区域。白桦树的阴影投射到建筑立面上,婆娑的树影营造出动人的动态美。尽管建筑周边的植被设计是经过精心设计的,但草丛所营造出的自然效果却更佳令人印象深刻。

景观中的艺术, art in the Landscape

艺术敏感性是这个项目完整性的基础。从设计之初,团队就与业主达成了共识,希望表达以工业设计为核心的设计理念。对于业主和设计团队,原始的 Anselm Kiefer 种植材料和Chris Burden的雕塑均相当符合他们的最初设想。景观设计师在这个项目中之所以扮演着非常重要角色,是因为他们要在设计过程中考虑到对雕塑的安排,导致设计过程演变成了和业主一起的艺术创作的过程。而前所未有的挑战是,景观师要打破传统的景观设计原则,要以雕塑元素代替植物和围栏解决设计中的问题。并且与以往不同的是,业主和景观师都在试图提升庭院中艺术展廊的在感性层面上的意义,以更深层次更持久的感染力和观者产生共鸣。

 

▲景观设计师认为这个建筑需要一个基础或者基座,置身其中能够感觉融入到周边环境。
The landscape architects felt the home needed a base, or plinth, on which to sit in order to ground the home in the surrounding context. Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲锈板的使用和美国钢铁业的中心底特律有历史性的联系。
Corten-steel has a historical tie to the project’s location outside Detroit, the center of the steel industry in America.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲其中的艺术品暗示出了连续的节点并强调了一系列的空间运动.
Art indicates points of arrival and reinforce a sequence of movement through the space.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲设计师利用当地小须芒草的粗旷线条,打破了锈板和混凝土的生硬感。
Swaths of native Little Bluestem grasses produce a ragged and rough juxtaposition to the clean lines off Corten and concrete.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲从前门向后面的景观望去,所需要做的就是软化两侧的建筑物而不是遮蔽它。
Looking from the front door entry back to the landscape, which needed to soften the building without overshadowing it. Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲河边的白桦树和下方的须芒草凸显了稍纵即逝的光影。
The river birch allée and bluestem grasses below exaggerate the ephemeral qualities of shadow and light.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

▲抬高的庭院分隔了人行道和车行道
The elevated courtyard provides a vertical separation between pedestrian and vehicular zones.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲景观设计遵循现代设计原则,通过延展户外活动空间有效地的营造了一个室外艺术馆的效果。
The landscape design stays true to modernist principles by extending outdoor living space, effectively creating an outdoor art gallery.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲设计打破了传统的园艺设计, 以雕塑元素代替了原本要使用的植物和围栏。
The design breaks from traditional garden design, creating sculptural elements in moments that would otherwise require plant or fencing material.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

▲设计团队认为,庭院中的元素应该要传达出一些深层次的感性意味。
The team believed that the elements of the garden should have a deep emotional impact.
 Photo credit: Marion Brenner

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

A pioneering fashion adventurer and the owner of two well-known designer boutiques in Birmingham and New York City, the client wished to create a singular aesthetic at her suburban Michigan home. Doing so meant that the landscape design would need to complement the architecture while simultaneously weaving it into the suburban context. Having grown up in the industrial culture of Michigan, and with a husband in the construction materials business, the client’s personal connection to materiality was central to the project. Throughout the design process, the architect and landscape architect were unified by this emphasis on craft and commitment to a modern and highly curated space.

The landscape architecture team arrived to the project after the shell of the residence had been constructed. Working within the spatial definition and language of the existing building envelope, the landscape architect saw the surrounding landscape as an opportunity to create a context for the large, concrete building while also defining clearer usage and movement through the outdoor spaces. The team also felt very strongly that the landscape should, in line with the architecture, stay true to modernist principles by extending the living space outdoors, effectively creating an outdoor gallery softened by plantings.

Upon arrival, the landscape architects found the envelope of the building perched atop a hillside that sloped down to the street. They felt strongly that the building needed a base, or plinth, on which to sit, in order to ground the home in the surrounding context. The sculptural quality of the resulting design—the corten steel that forms a composed frame for the outdoor living spaces around the house—creates a gracious transition between home and surrounding context. The plinth reinforces, yet softens, the minimal, clean lines of the building, creating a unified visual language from the ground up.

Beyond visually anchoring the building to the site, the elevated ground plane expands the usable space and creates a transition zone, or scrim, that buffers between the street and the entrance to the site. The landscape design carefully considers the scale and proportion of these outdoor spaces to create a more intermediate, human-scale zone in relationship to the monumental architecture. Numerous scale and siting studies were necessary to create spaces that would soften the building without overshadowing or being eclipsed by it. The highly-curated spaces provide areas for art, seating, planting, and open space, as well as a vertical separation between pedestrian and vehicular spaces.

Choreographed paths for the residents and guests elevate the familiar and allow the landscape to be experienced in different ways. Visitors to the property park along the driveway and are guided clearly toward the grid of river birch along the southern face of the house, where a set of stairs draws them up around the eastern face of the house. They walk the path along a meadow of Little Blue Stem grasses, anchored at one end by a corten steel plinth and sculpture.  Along the way, the front door is tucked into a narrow, dramatic slit in the building façade.

The residents come home along a different path. Driving past the visitor’s entrance, they turn into a driveway and park in the detached garage; what makes this moment unique is the installation of beams that protrude viscerally from the earth. A collection of super-sized pick-up sticks, this metal sculpture speaks to the client’s core identity while simultaneously screening the garage. The sculpture courtyard functions as their main entry and is one of the most trafficked areas.  Dotted with sculpture and protected by a ceiling of delicate honey locust trees, the sculpture garden and courtyard functions both as a gallery-like space and extension of the home.

As the landscape architects imposed a spatial order, they also enhanced the relationship of the landscape to the building by introducing a minimalist, yet highly textured, pallete of plants and materials that together highlight the passing of seasons. Corten steel retaining walls echo the area’s connection to the steel industry. Swaths of native Little Bluestem grasses, ragged and rough, juxtapose sharply with the clean lines of concrete and corten. Lush hedges create architectural definition while softening the heavily pedestrian zones around the house. An allée of river birch trees pattern the building’s façade in shadow, creating dynamic movement on an otherwise blank surface. While the plantings near the building are curated with precision, the meadow spaces beyond are more natural and less articulated.

An artistic sensibility was fundamental to the integrity of the project. From the beginning, the team shared images of contemporary art to communicate the visceral, industrial qualities the client wished to see expressed in the design; for both the client and the design team, the raw paintings and sculptures of Anselm Kiefer and the sculptures of Chris Burden resonated deeply.  While a significant portion of the design process for the landscape architect required creating the context for and siting of sculpture, the process eventually evolved into working with the client to create the art pieces themselves.  This new task challenged the landscape architect to break out of the confines of traditional garden design, creating sculptural elements to tackle design problems that would have traditionally been solved with plant and fencing material. Instead, both the client and the landscape architect sought to evoke the powerful, emotional qualities of an art gallery in the garden—moving beyond the simple sculpture garden to a space with deeper, more lasting resonance.

 

PROJECT CREDITS

Design: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture 
Client: Linda Dresner

More: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture 



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