面临着复杂的水文和自然环境系统：1 确定文化设施；2 识别和保护重要栖息地；3 被淹没的
An Emerging Natural Paradise — Aogu Wetland Forest Park Master Plan
approach that a previously reclaimed shoreline should go back to the natural–what
a radical move. The scale was amazing, instead of just looking at the landscape,
they looked at global flyways. A really clear presentation that resonates.”
—2011 Professional Awards Jury
Aogu is a 1,600-hectare site located on the route of Asian migrating birds. The
site has been reclaimed from the sea and unexpectedly reverted to a coastal
wetland because of land subsiding and the cessation of farming in the area. The
project focuses on establishing a series of re-habitation strategies on site that
is reclaimed for human development, and emphasizes the site as a seeding process
for the natural systems, as well as environmental education and eco-tourism.
Over the past decades, flat and spacious coastal areas have been seen various
usages and development. The contention and conflict between human development and
natural conservation along the coastal area occur all around the world. The
project, Aogu Wetland and Forest Park, is located in the southwest area of Taiwan,
and has experienced different stages of development before it eventually reverted
to natural wetland. On the estuary of the Bei-Gang River, the site was a typical
tidal mud wetland before 1964. The site began the C-shaped seawall construction
and reclaimed over 1,000-hectare of lands from sea in 1964 because of the farming
and livestock industry. Historically, the land was desalinated and prepared for a
sugar plantation, a pig farm and a fish farm. After the land subsided and several
serious inundation events by the sea occurred, the soil become saline and the
production of sugar ceased on the site. In 2001, the site was selected as an
afforestation area. The landscape and habitat have changed dramatically in the
past 40 years, and the site now consists of a combination of natural wetland and
artificial woodland. The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park comes from this changing
process of environment.
Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is the showplace of the process of natural systems.
The site has been reclaimed and reverted back to a coastal wetland, which
unexpectedly has become a refuge for migratory birds and other wildlife. The aim
of this project focuses on establishing a series of conservation and re-habitation
strategies on sites reclaimed for human development, and emphasizes the site as a
seeding process for the natural systems, as well as environmental education, eco-
tourism and cultural sustainability.
Seasonal Flood and Drought: The site is still enclosed by a C-shaped seawall with
the challenge of land subsiding. The rainfall during typhoon season can reach 300-
500 mm per month, and create the major flood issue. During the drought season, the
shortage of fresh water challenges the survival of wetland and forest habitat.
Water Pollution: In the Aogu Wetland and Forest Park, is a pig farm with 30,000
pigs. The wastewater from the pig farm is treated by a secondary treatment plant,
but the outflow from the plant and other untreated wastewater from surrounding
fish farms and villages create major problems to the wetland and forest park.
Afforestation Project: Based on the economic purpose, the afforestation project
planted single species in each 100 by 400 meter land plot from 2001 to 2009. The
artificial woodland with low diversity and natural habitat faces the critical
issue of natural succession in the changing environment.
Conflict between Wildlife Conservation and the Tourism Industry: The Aogu Wetland
and Forest Park is becoming famous because of the number of migrating birds in the
past few years. Unregulated tourism activities create major conflicts and
environmental impacts to the wetland and forest habitats.
The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park master plan aims to use methods with the least
impact to resolve the environmental problems and restore the natural habitats for
various types of waterfowl and wildlife. The main concept for this project is
returning, keeping, and recreating this site to its environmental and educational
The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park faces complicated hydrological and natural
environmental systems. The master plan is the result of a sequence of physical
surveys, suitability analyses, and planning processes describing the following: 1)
identify the existing facilities and culture; 2) identify and conserve the
critical habitat; 3) leave room for water at flooding area; 4) respect the
planting and natural pattern; 5) resolve the issue of wastewater; and 6) use the
area left over for eco-tourism.
The conservation strategies are designed based on environmental sensibility in
various areas. The western site of the park (Don-Shi Park) is the conservation
core area with strict conservation policies. The middle part of the park (Don-Shi
Park) plays the buffering role and provides services to natural species,
villagers, and visitors. The eastern part of the park (Xi-Zi-Xia Park) is the
entrance of the park with less environmental sensibility, but of high value in
regard to education and demonstration. The main concept of the conservation is to
restore and re-populate various types of habitats to recreate various eco-systems
that existed here historically. In the master plan, marsh, mangrove, mud flat,
open water, salt mud, ditches, woodland, grass land, wild farm, fishing ponds,
etc., are merged into the wetland and forest park.
Freshwater is scarce at the site. Therefore, keeping all available fresh water on
site has been the guideline for the hydrological strategies, except the storm
rainfall intensity is higher than design standard. Since the rain is unevenly
distributed over the year, various types of wetlands have been designed for
maximizing utilization of the available freshwater sources. A flood-detention pond
at the center of the Don-shi Park, which is capable of storing the 0.3 million
cubic meters of storm rainfall runoff that comes only once or twice a year.
Domestic discharges and farm disposals are collected through drainage ditches,
purified through a set of constructed wetlands, and stored in the detention pond
during the dry season. This will play the most important role in keeping the
proposal green and viable.
Due to the afforestation project, the low diversity of the woodlands, and several
species are not in a healthy condition because of the salty and wet soil. The
master plan alters the micro-topography, and uses the native species to recover
the afforestation area gradually. The planting strategies include ecological
replanting, buffering replanting, wind-breaking replanting, and historical-
replanting strategies. The master plan focuses on the emerging coastal environment
strategically with the following sequence: 1) get detailed surveys of the tree
species in each 100 by 400 meter land plot; 2) create micro-topography changes and
replant native species to re-habitat the diversity of planting; 3) allow the
environment return to the natural succession through time; and 4) merge diverse
landscape and related activities.
The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is zoned with the idea of green gradient. The
park is planned for more environmental diversity, with strict and higher
protection guidelines from east to west sides of the site. The park can be divided
into three major parks. From west to east are Don-Shi Park, Don-Shi Park and Xi-
Zi-Xia Park sequentially. Don-Shi Park has the highest diversity and is the core
for conservation. The plan is to alter the artificial channel to natural waterways
and various wetlands for restoring the most possible rainfall runoff during the
wet season and purifying all available disposals to support the emerging diverse
habitats. Aogu Park has a small village (300 people) in its center. This park acts
as a Wise Use Area in the master plan. People living in this area can practice
their fishing farm in a sustainable way, and use this area as a center for outdoor
education. A ring-wetland system will be connected through created waterways
around the village to protect it from flooding and treating the domestic
disposals. Water will be circulated within the ring by using the flood drainage
pumps to maintain creativities and biodiversity during the dry season. Xi-Zu-Xia
Park is holding the entrance of the whole project area and is next to a famous
temple. This park is a public access area with a deep open water park in the
master plan. The visitor’s center will be floating on the water, letting visitors
experience the natural environment and become educated before going into the park
with high environmental sensitivities. Basic services and facilities can be
provided to the public. Local people can use this area to set up their commercial
development and services to the whole project area eventually.
The master plan is developed through a serious public involvement, meetings, and
consultations with experts that helped identity key issues and shape the planning
process. The master plan includes phasing strategies with the least input
regarding significant issues, and let natural succession take over gradually
within a monitoring, educational, and management framework. An organizational
structure, including NGOs, communities, government, committees. etc., is provided
in the master plan to facilitate and maintain the operation of the park.