2011ASLA专业奖{3}规划设计杰出奖

Aogu Wetland Forest Park Master Plan 新自然天堂–鳌鼓湿地森林公园总体规划。

项目标签

文章分类 :

 
纪录片《迁徙的鸟》开篇第一句话是:“鸟的迁徙是一个关于承诺的故事。”电影导演也表
示“飞翔对鸟来说不是人们想象的什么乐趣,而是为了生存而拼搏。它们要穿越云层、迎着暴
风雨,许多困难不是我们能够想象的。”

候鸟是脆弱的,容易受到伤害的,但是候鸟也是极度敏锐的,在这个自然环境日益恶劣的地
球,他们总能在第一时间发现适合避难的新天堂。它们的选择和行为,就是大自然最直白的评
价。真正的自然,无需人类任何褒奖,获得动物们的认可足以。
 
 
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一个新兴的自然乐园——鳌鼓湿地森林公园总体规划
“在我们所看到的那些优秀的应对水的措施中,这个方案有趣的将填海地区的海岸线回归成自
然状态,这是多么激进而彻底的举动。尺度惊人,不仅可以观赏风景,也成为鸟类全球迁徙路
程的一部分,这里上演着真正的自然,引起人们的共鸣。”
2011年专业奖评审委员会
 
 
项目概况:
项目占地1600公顷并位于亚洲鸟类迁徙路线之上。湿地的基础是以前填海的土地。原来的土地
不能继续使用是因为该区地表下陷和农耕停止。项目立足于人类发展的可再生居住策略,顺应
场地自然系统的演进过程,并发挥其环境教育和生态旅游的意义。
 
 
项目内容:
在过去的几十年中,平坦宽敞的题海用地具有各种用途与发展。但其与自然保护之间的争论冲
突一直在全球各地上演。这个位于台湾西南部的鳌鼓湿地森林公园,经历了各种阶段的发展最
终演变成为自然湿地。1964年以前,这里还是典型的潮汐泥湿地。后来由于农耕和畜牧业的发
展到此这个地方建设了C型海塘,占用了超过1,000公顷的湿地。但原本打算用来种植甘蔗、养
猪和养鱼的这片地方,在地表下沉和几次洪水之后,土壤盐分变多而不能生产甘蔗。最终在
2001年, 这里被用作造林区。过去的四十年中,该地区发生了显著的演变,目前这里有自然湿
地也有人工森林的结合。鳌鼓湿地森林公园是在此基础上发展产生。
这个森林公园是自然生态系统进程中的演示性区域。恢复成海滨湿地后, 意外的成为了迁徙候
鸟和其他野生动物的避难所。该项目以人为本,保护自然,并强调自然系统、环境教育、生态
旅游和文化延续的可持续性和关联性。
 
项目挑战:
季节性洪水和干旱,以及土地沉降。因为C型海棠的封闭,台风季节每月将于在300—500毫
米,而干旱地区这里的淡水严重不足。
水污染。以前养猪场的规模达到3万头猪,虽然猪场废水经过简单处理,但是养鱼场和其它区
域的水污染一直未得到解决。
造林项目。因为经济原因,最开始都是单一林区,具备很低的多样化性,同时人工林和自然林
的交替过渡也存在问题。
因为候鸟数量增多,引发了有人增多,无节制的旅游活动需要被管理。
在总规划中希望用最小的影响来解决环境问题以及恢复自然栖息地。概念就是“依返,保护,
建立环境和教育价值。”
 
 
分析和规划过程:
面临着复杂的水文和自然环境系统:1 确定文化设施;2 识别和保护重要栖息地;3 被淹没的
房子保留;4 尊重种植物和自然植物;5处理污水;6为旅游留出区域。
 
 
战略
根据环境敏感性制定保护策略。西不是核心保护区。中部是缓冲区,为游客和村民提供旅游和
种植服务。东部是环境敏感性低的入口区,承担教育和示范作用。项目力求回复不同栖息地和
各种生态系统。湿地,红树林,滩涂,林地,草地,野生场地,钓鱼区等等都被整合到湿地公
园。
 
 
水文策略
这里淡水稀缺,暴雨季节又泛洪。因此各类湿地被设计成为最大化利用淡水资源。中心公园有
0.3万立方米的洪水泄洪池。湿地在净化这里的雨水,可作为农业生产用水,发挥重要作用。
 
 
种植策略
盐湿地导致植物生长不好,种类少。通轻微改变地形,增大种植面积,进行引种和补种。1 ,
调查多达百种植物;2,创建微地形,补充本土植物达到生物多样性;3,引发自然演替;4,
将景观和活动整合。
 
 
分区策略
为了保证环境多样性,从东到西,环境保护准则越来越高。西侧拥有最高的生物多样性,享受
核心保护。开挖的一些人工渠道成为新兴的多样化生物栖息地。中部公园有300人的小村,村
民继续打渔,同时设置排涝泵保护这里不旱不涝。东侧的入口区域靠近著名的寺庙。公园开放
了水上区域,允许游客中深度潜入公园,体会自然环境,接受景观环境教育,东部区域也拥有
商业和基本服务区域。
 
 
实施策略
开发过程中保持了公众的高度参与,各专家帮忙协商。列出最重要的问题,实施淘汰战略。组
件可持续性管理框架。组织政府以及非政府部门,保证和维持公园运作。
 
 
An Emerging Natural Paradise — Aogu Wetland Forest Park Master Plan
“Among the best water initiatives we saw. It’s interesting that they took the
approach that a previously reclaimed shoreline should go back to the natural–what
a radical move. The scale was amazing, instead of just looking at the landscape,
they looked at global flyways. A really clear presentation that resonates.”
—2011 Professional Awards Jury
Project Statement
Aogu is a 1,600-hectare site located on the route of Asian migrating birds. The
site has been reclaimed from the sea and unexpectedly reverted to a coastal
wetland because of land subsiding and the cessation of farming in the area. The
project focuses on establishing a series of re-habitation strategies on site that
is reclaimed for human development, and emphasizes the site as a seeding process
for the natural systems, as well as environmental education and eco-tourism.
 
Project Narrative
Over the past decades, flat and spacious coastal areas have been seen various
usages and development. The contention and conflict between human development and
natural conservation along the coastal area occur all around the world. The
project, Aogu Wetland and Forest Park, is located in the southwest area of Taiwan,
and has experienced different stages of development before it eventually reverted
to natural wetland. On the estuary of the Bei-Gang River, the site was a typical
tidal mud wetland before 1964. The site began the C-shaped seawall construction
and reclaimed over 1,000-hectare of lands from sea in 1964 because of the farming
and livestock industry. Historically, the land was desalinated and prepared for a
sugar plantation, a pig farm and a fish farm. After the land subsided and several
serious inundation events by the sea occurred, the soil become saline and the
production of sugar ceased on the site. In 2001, the site was selected as an
afforestation area. The landscape and habitat have changed dramatically in the
past 40 years, and the site now consists of a combination of natural wetland and
artificial woodland. The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park comes from this changing
process of environment.
Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is the showplace of the process of natural systems.
The site has been reclaimed and reverted back to a coastal wetland, which
unexpectedly has become a refuge for migratory birds and other wildlife. The aim
of this project focuses on establishing a series of conservation and re-habitation
strategies on sites reclaimed for human development, and emphasizes the site as a
seeding process for the natural systems, as well as environmental education, eco-
tourism and cultural sustainability.
 
Project Issues
Seasonal Flood and Drought: The site is still enclosed by a C-shaped seawall with
the challenge of land subsiding. The rainfall during typhoon season can reach 300-
500 mm per month, and create the major flood issue. During the drought season, the
shortage of fresh water challenges the survival of wetland and forest habitat.
Water Pollution: In the Aogu Wetland and Forest Park, is a pig farm with 30,000
pigs. The wastewater from the pig farm is treated by a secondary treatment plant,
but the outflow from the plant and other untreated wastewater from surrounding
fish farms and villages create major problems to the wetland and forest park.
Afforestation Project: Based on the economic purpose, the afforestation project
planted single species in each 100 by 400 meter land plot from 2001 to 2009. The
artificial woodland with low diversity and natural habitat faces the critical
issue of natural succession in the changing environment.
Conflict between Wildlife Conservation and the Tourism Industry: The Aogu Wetland
and Forest Park is becoming famous because of the number of migrating birds in the
past few years. Unregulated tourism activities create major conflicts and
environmental impacts to the wetland and forest habitats.
The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park master plan aims to use methods with the least
impact to resolve the environmental problems and restore the natural habitats for
various types of waterfowl and wildlife. The main concept for this project is
returning, keeping, and recreating this site to its environmental and educational
values.
 
Analysis and Planning Process
The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park faces complicated hydrological and natural
environmental systems. The master plan is the result of a sequence of physical
surveys, suitability analyses, and planning processes describing the following: 1)
identify the existing facilities and culture; 2) identify and conserve the
critical habitat; 3) leave room for water at flooding area; 4) respect the
planting and natural pattern; 5) resolve the issue of wastewater; and 6) use the
area left over for eco-tourism.
 
Conservational Strategies
The conservation strategies are designed based on environmental sensibility in
various areas. The western site of the park (Don-Shi Park) is the conservation
core area with strict conservation policies. The middle part of the park (Don-Shi
Park) plays the buffering role and provides services to natural species,
villagers, and visitors. The eastern part of the park (Xi-Zi-Xia Park) is the
entrance of the park with less environmental sensibility, but of high value in
regard to education and demonstration. The main concept of the conservation is to
restore and re-populate various types of habitats to recreate various eco-systems
that existed here historically. In the master plan, marsh, mangrove, mud flat,
open water, salt mud, ditches, woodland, grass land, wild farm, fishing ponds,
etc., are merged into the wetland and forest park.
 
Hydrological Strategies
Freshwater is scarce at the site. Therefore, keeping all available fresh water on
site has been the guideline for the hydrological strategies, except the storm
rainfall intensity is higher than design standard. Since the rain is unevenly
distributed over the year, various types of wetlands have been designed for
maximizing utilization of the available freshwater sources. A flood-detention pond
at the center of the Don-shi Park, which is capable of storing the 0.3 million
cubic meters of storm rainfall runoff that comes only once or twice a year.
Domestic discharges and farm disposals are collected through drainage ditches,
purified through a set of constructed wetlands, and stored in the detention pond
during the dry season. This will play the most important role in keeping the
proposal green and viable.
 
Planting Strategies
Due to the afforestation project, the low diversity of the woodlands, and several
species are not in a healthy condition because of the salty and wet soil. The
master plan alters the micro-topography, and uses the native species to recover
the afforestation area gradually. The planting strategies include ecological
replanting, buffering replanting, wind-breaking replanting, and historical-
replanting strategies. The master plan focuses on the emerging coastal environment
strategically with the following sequence: 1) get detailed surveys of the tree
species in each 100 by 400 meter land plot; 2) create micro-topography changes and
replant native species to re-habitat the diversity of planting; 3) allow the
environment return to the natural succession through time; and 4) merge diverse
landscape and related activities.
 
Zoning Strategies
The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is zoned with the idea of green gradient. The
park is planned for more environmental diversity, with strict and higher
protection guidelines from east to west sides of the site. The park can be divided
into three major parks. From west to east are Don-Shi Park, Don-Shi Park and Xi-
Zi-Xia Park sequentially. Don-Shi Park has the highest diversity and is the core
for conservation. The plan is to alter the artificial channel to natural waterways
and various wetlands for restoring the most possible rainfall runoff during the
wet season and purifying all available disposals to support the emerging diverse
habitats. Aogu Park has a small village (300 people) in its center. This park acts
as a Wise Use Area in the master plan. People living in this area can practice
their fishing farm in a sustainable way, and use this area as a center for outdoor
education. A ring-wetland system will be connected through created waterways
around the village to protect it from flooding and treating the domestic
disposals. Water will be circulated within the ring by using the flood drainage
pumps to maintain creativities and biodiversity during the dry season. Xi-Zu-Xia
Park is holding the entrance of the whole project area and is next to a famous
temple. This park is a public access area with a deep open water park in the
master plan. The visitor’s center will be floating on the water, letting visitors
experience the natural environment and become educated before going into the park
with high environmental sensitivities. Basic services and facilities can be
provided to the public. Local people can use this area to set up their commercial
development and services to the whole project area eventually.
 
Implemental Strategies
The master plan is developed through a serious public involvement, meetings, and
consultations with experts that helped identity key issues and shape the planning
process. The master plan includes phasing strategies with the least input
regarding significant issues, and let natural succession take over gradually
within a monitoring, educational, and management framework. An organizational
structure, including NGOs, communities, government, committees. etc., is provided
in the master plan to facilitate and maintain the operation of the park.
All images © National Sun Yat-sen University, Yannlin Photo, Forestry Bureau
 
 
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总平面

 

 

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公园一景
 
 
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场地位置
 
 
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场地历史
 
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项目问题
 
 
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未来景观展望
 
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项目演进
 
 
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分区策略
 
 
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被动保护策略
 
 
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积极保护策略
 
 
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水文战略—水资源管理
 
 
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水文战略—废水管理
 
 
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种植策略
 
 
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未来景愿
 
 
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项目演进
 
 
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实施
 

 



发表评论

7 评论

  1. 分析图质量好高,内容全面,棒!

  2. 这些分析图是什么软件做的?

  3. 非常好的范本

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