这个住宅建立在西方建筑师对中国园林的感悟与转化之上。之前我们还曾报道过Alarcon+Asociados的Office building in Madrid 。
Architects: Alarcón + Asociados / Alberto Alarcón
Location: León, Spain
Collaborators: Sara Rojo, Carlos Tomás, Clara García, Heloise
Project Year: 2009
Project Area: 1203 sqm Built Area: 310 sqm
Photographs: Pablo Cruz
This low-cost (half of usual price, less than 400 euros/m2) and self-assembled house has been built in León (Spain) for a wine-maker family.
For its construction, pavilions were used and interconnected in the same fashion as the Chinese traditional architecture of Suzhou Gardens.
The structure consists of load-bearing walls made out of lightened clay that provide the house with thermal insulation. The beam system –made of precast concrete and clay– comprises 5-meter spans and supports the habitable green roof. Thanks to its soil and vegetation, not only provides it insulation and thermal inertia, but it also absorbs solar radiation.
The house is heated with low-temperature radiant floor connected to solar panels during the winter. In summer, it is cooled with cross ventilation during the night and blinds controlling solar radiation during the day (as in traditional Spanish architecture).
The different levels of the slab define diverse scale spaces as well as the connection between interior levels. The horizontal connection of spaces is achieved through diagonal alignment of pavilions and axial continuity of doors.
The clients participated throughout the designing and building process redefining the house geometry in order to adapt it to their own needs and gradually colonizing the space.
This house was characterized by a cheap conventional construction and easy building techniques known by the locals as well as the house owners.
PHOTO by Pablo Cruz & Alberto Alarcón © Alarcon+Asociados
gooood and Alarcon+Asociados
对谈：gooood VS Alarcon+Asociados
There are couple of points which you mentioned in your text, I’m thinking as a start, maybe you can tell us more detail about them.
First, you mentioned “The clients participated throughout the designing and building process redefining the house geometry in order to adapt it to their own needs and gradually colonizing the space.” Could you give us some detailed examples about this?
The house was built by the clients themselves. As the project is mainly defined by a system of walls joining different pavilions, sometimes we were able to change the height and slope of these walls or even the position of the windows according to the client´s needs (sunlight, views, intimacy …). The project defined certain tolerances for these in-situ decisions making it an “open project” in the same way that traditional Architecture used to be (check the façade explanatory drawings). The house floor plan layout and openings size were never altered since it wasn´t the built geometry, very related to the constructive system.
Second, you mentioned about Chinese garden in Suzhou. Could you elaborate on this idea?
I travelled to Suzhou some years ago, visiting some of its most representative gardens. I was impressed about the polyphonic relationship between pavilion, stone, water and vegetation, making the Chinese garden probably the most refined and successful mankind artwork of all times.
I thought that this idea of working with pavilions of a humble size that can achieve a great space quality, could be exported to a house in the Spanish countryside. I enjoyed very much “The suging wave pavilion” garden, the way in which pavilions are related, diluting frontiers between indoor and outdoor space, and changing the scale of the spaces through diagonal visual connections.
The way in “Leon Chinese house” the pavilions connect, not making difference between load bearing and outdoor walls and the visual connections achieved are direct inspiration from these gardens. Usually in the traditional Chinese architecture stepped walls cover a sloping roof. In this case sloping walls cover stepped garden roof. The house intends to be a tribute to the way in which these gardens were designed.
Third, the ground floor plan is very geometrical. In your text you didn’t mention too much about the dialogue between this system and site. Could you elaborate on this?
From the very beginning we designed a constructive system that could be easily built in a cheap way by the clients themselves. The easiest and most universal constructive system consists in two load bearing walls with not too wide windows that support the roof joists. We arranged the pavilions mainly thinking in the outdoor- indoor relationship, trying to achieve outdoor spaces of different scales as the Chinese garden´s pavilions do. We tried to establish a dialogue with the whole site, erasing the frontier between built and unbuilt as Chinese garden does.