材料与细部专辑第一期 – 直向建筑 / 董功

董功:每一个构造应该是从设计里生发出来的一个思考。

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第1期为您奉上的是直向建筑董功。更多关于他:直向建筑在gooood

gooood team explore the material and detail design of architecture, shares the exclusive information of the highly accomplished projects and cutting – edge technologies of the industry. Your recommendations and suggestions are welcomed!
Material and Detail NO. 1 introduces Dong Gong | Vectors Architect. More: Vector Architects on gooood.

出品人:向玲   Producer: Xiang Ling
编辑团队:向玲,苏昕,朱坤宇,凌犀(实习),陈曼颖(实习)    Editor: Xiang Ling, Su Xin, Zhu Kunyu, Ling Xi (Intern), Chen Manying (Intern)

 

2016年,我们拜访了直向建筑办公室,重点参观了办公室中的材料室和模型陈列室,并针对建筑材料和细部领域采访了直向建筑主持建筑师董功。

In 2016, we visited Vector Architects’ Design Studio, especially the material room and model showroom, and interviewed Dong Gong for his insights regarding materials and detailed design.

 

▽ 视频 Video (全文深度采访见下方文字。视频为6分40秒精华版,建议选择蓝光1080P观看。)

 

Interview
goooo
d x Dong Gong

1.
董功老师在最初构思建筑的时候就会考虑到材料和节点,甚至会在草图中画出细部构造。为什么会采取这样的工作方法?
We see that you take material application and tectonics into account for you initial architecture concept, even draw detail structure sketches for each project. We are curious about the reason why you adopt this working method?

董功:首先是因为材料和构造是我们非常关心的事情。我个人很反对把画构造认为是深化方案或施工图的一个步骤。因为我觉得它和塑造空间、材料、和人身体的关系,跟光线、风的设计相似:很多时候一个设计, 在概念的层面就要落实到材料和构造上,这就是为什么我们一开始就会有这方面的草图。比较大的修改有几种情况,一是造价、施工队的能力问题,或者材料不符合当地的情况。也有一方面是因为我们一开始的考虑不周,后面遇到困难,就只能遇到事情再解决问题。但这并不妨碍我们工作的习惯,就是这个维度的思考是要介入到最初期的设计里的。

Dong Gong: First of all, we (Vector Architects) always concern about material application and tectonics. Personally, I am against that the tectonic drawings are to be considered in the construction documents design phase.. It is the same as establishing the relationship amongst space, materials, and human body, or exploit wind and light condition. That is to say, it is necessary to implement material and tectonic ideas at conceptual design stage. This is why we sketch details at the very beginning.

There are several situations relating to considerable modification. Sometimes, the construction budget and the ability of the construction team do not meet our requirement. Or perhaps the material we choose does not match the local environment. And sometimes we might be hasty at the beginning, then we can only tackle with the troubles on site when we encounter them. But this does not hinder our working method. In a word, it is essential to think about tectonics and material application at the very beginning of a project.

▽ 海边图书馆草图到最终方案的演变,From Sketch to Design, Seashore Library. MORE: 海边图书馆 Seashore Library  Photo by 苏圣亮 Su Shingling(右 Right)

Seashore Librarysketch_01   Seashore Librarysketch_02   Seashore Library1

 

2.
直向建筑办公室中有专门的材料库区域,且作品中的细部构造,大多数都是独立设计。请董老师分享积累材料与细部知识的心得。
Vector Architects have professional material library in the office. Meanwhile, most of detailed structures and tectonics are designed by your own. Could you share some experiences with us about accumulating materials and tectonics knowledge?

董功:我们这部分工作做的很一般,我们事务所里面的这些材料收集也不是特别系统,还得慢慢再积累。但对我来讲没有任何一个结点是既成的结点。因为一个建筑整个的建造系统,就像人的身体一样,他有他的结构、脉络、经络、皮肤。所以任何一个建筑设计里面的任何一处构造都是符合那个设计逻辑系统的存在,当然就不存在引用。每一个构造应该是从设计里生发出来的一个思考。

Dong Gong: To be honest, we are not experts on collecting materials, and we do not have a professional collecting system yet. We still need to accumulate more materials gradually. But for me, each tectonic detail is unique. There is no single detail design directly taken from others by us. As the whole building system is the analogue of the human body with its own structure (skeleton), vein and skin, each tectonic detail is exclusive for one system, which is impossible to be just duplicated. On the contrary, every tectonic design has to be inspired from its own project.

▽ 直向办公室中的材料库,The Material Library in Vector Architect’s Office  

Vector Office

▽ 直向办公室中的节点草图,Detail Sketches at the Office  Photo Credit: gooood

Vector Architect's Office

 

3.
设计过程中对材料的考量是如何介入的建筑设计中的?
How do you consider material application when involving into architecture design? 

董功:我们每一个设计,往往是先有设计对材料的需求。比如说它的透明性,轻或重。当然这个需求是概念层面,到最后产生这个材料的构造做法还有其他的原因在制约着。

Dong Gong: The requirement for materials such as the transparency or the weight of it comes from our concept design in each project. And of course when the project develops, there will be other constraints impacting the tectonic methods.

▽ 直向建筑近来常用材料:玻璃砖、金属网、竹钢、混凝土等,Some of the most-used materials by Vector Architects recently: Glass Block Masonries, Metal Mesh, Laminated Bamboo Slates and Exposed Concrete and so on.  Photo by 夏至 Xia Zhi (下右 Lower right) 

None-standard Materials 6

metal sheet   None-standard Materials 7   None-standard Materials 8

比如阳朔项目,实际上最开使用这个混凝土砖的原因是:这个新房子是围绕着周边一个被保留下来的老糖厂,它是整个场地最核心的主题。老糖厂是青砖盖出来的工业建筑,非常漂亮。经过了几十年自然风雨的洗礼后,有很多岁月的痕迹。新房子怎么对老房子有一种恰当的呼应,是整个空间概念的起点。落实到材料上,我们希望有一定的差异性,不想那么简单地就用青砖去呼应青砖。而且毕竟黏土砖的制造对环境有影响,所以我们就产生了使用混凝土的想法。但这个材料又是用在外走廊的空间边界上,我们又希望光线和风能够进到走廊里。所以就产生了混凝土镂空垒造的方式。

我们经历了大量的实验,有几十个不同的垒造研究。最终实现这个设计的关键节点就是整个垒造是用镂空的方式,且每一块混凝土砖是回字形的镂空砖。这样混凝土的材料用的最少。我们用这个时代的材料,这个时代技术的可能性,去呼应了老房子。所以每个项目最终材料的定义实际上是有很复杂的原因,还有一点很重要,就是任何一种材料只有有了构造以后才能形成一个具体的材料,同样一块木头在不同的房子里,严格地说不是一种材料。我还是强调,构造和材料在一起才能真正的实现材料性这个概念。

In Yangshuo project (Alila Yangshuo), we use concrete blocks as a main material for the new building, as it surrounds a well preserved sugar factory which is the core theme of the site. The old sugar factory is an impressive industry building built with grey bricks. Yet after decades of the baptism of wind and rain, the factory imprinted with time. The spatial concept was inspired by the relationship between the new building and the old factory.Therefore we tried to find a material that reflects the use of grey bricks in a more smart and delicate way. As the clay brick manufacturing process has a negative impact on environment, we commit the concrete block approach. Meanwhile, it is used as a border in the exterior corridor. For the obtain of natural light and ventilation, we hollowed the wall of concrete out.

We have gone through a lot of experiments and researched dozens of different building methods. In the end, we decided to hollow out each concrete block in center (the result is like a character 回)and pill them up with empty spaces between the layers. In this way we can minimize the consumption of concrete material. We use contemporary material and technology to correspond with the existing building as well as presenting the new generation characteristic. As shown in the previous example, the final material used in our project is influenced by many factors. And more importantly, only a material with its specifically designed tectonic is an embodied material yet can be applied in the building for us. Same type of wood in different building with a different tectonic detail is not exactly the same. I still want to emphasize that material and tectonic should be taken as a whole.

▽ 阳朔项目模型,Model of the Alila Yangshuo

Yangshuo Alila Model

▽ 回字形镂空砖的多次试验,The Masonry Experiments of the Concrete Block Facade  

Alila Yangshuo 砌块墙方案1.2 对比   Alila Yangshuo Model

▽ 回字形镂空砖的最终效果, Final Result of the Concrete Block facade 

Yangshuo Alila

 

4.
在木木美术馆中展示了三种不同密度和尺寸的钢网,而在白塔寺项目中的玻璃砖也提到过多次实验确定气泡的密度和比例,同时阳朔项目砌块图案的最终选择也一波三折。那么关于这种“确定”(比如海边图书馆的玻璃砖与白塔寺的玻璃砖相比,有什么不同呢?),一般是建立在感性的体验上,还是理性的数据上呢(比如透光率等)?
In M woods museum project, you chose from three kinds of galvanized iron mesh with different densities and sizes. While in Baitasi Courtyard Hybrid, the glass block masonries have gone through lots of experiments to test the densities and proportions of the bubbles. And in Yangshuo project, you also have been through a twists and turns on choosing the masonry pattern. So, what is the difference of those “final decisions” ? (For example, what is the difference between the Glass Block Masonries in seashore library project and Baitasi project?) Is that based on emotional experiences or rational data (such as light transmittance, etc)?

董功:我觉得都有吧。一个团队有自己对材料的喜好,另一方面每个项目又有一些客观的限定因素。比如海边图书馆项目的玻璃砖是我们第一次用,它是我们和当地的小厂子一起研究出来的材料。它的做法尺寸和垒造的方式,是图书馆专有的。用玻璃砖最重要的想法,是空间对这两个界面有一定的需求,(它)需要有能够柔化光线,不让里面的工业桁架被直接看到的作用。另外一个很重要的原因,我们希望它像一块冰,尤其是光线从里往外漫射出来的时候。冰又和海水有一定的关系,同时气泡形成的半透明也跟液体有关系,所以就像一块固化的液体。

Dong Gong: We care about both. On one hand, we, as a team, have our own preferences for materials. On the other hand, each project is limited by objective constraints. Take Seashore Library project as an example, it is our first time to use glass block masonries. We collaborated with a local factory to research the size and scale of the brick, and study how to pile it up. The final production was exclusive for the Seashore Library. The most important reason is that we intend to use glass block masonries to define the space, soften the direct sunlight in and artifactual light out and conceal the trusses in between. Another important reason is that we want each brick looking like a piece of ice cube, especially when the light diffuses from the interior. At the same time, ice has a certain relationship with the sea on site as well as the translucency brought up by bubbles. Glass block masonries is then seems to be a frozen liquid.

▽ 不同气泡密度与比例的玻璃砖,The Glass Block Masonries with Various Densities and Proportions of the Bubbles  Photo Credit: gooood

glass block 4

▽ 玻璃砖柔化了光线,隐藏了其中的工业桁架。不同的气泡密度也带来明暗不一的光影,The Glass Block Masonries Conceal the Trusses in Between and Soften the Direct Sunlight with luminance variance.    Photo by 苏圣亮 Su Shengliang  

Seashore Library 13

▽ 光线从里往外漫射出来,如同一块冰, The Light Diffuses from the Interior Making the Glass Block Masonries as an ice cube     Photo by 夏至 Xia Zhi  

Seashore Library 5

玻璃砖到了白塔寺,更多的是和老砖之间的关系。白塔寺里面有一些混合的功能,我们想用这个半透明的材料去处理它功能和功能之间的私密性。它的垒造方式和尺寸,是严格按照四合院旁老砖墙的模数塑造的。所以同样一种材料,在不同的项目里边回应不同的问题。

In Baitasi project, the reason of using glass block masonries is derived from the existence of old bricks on site. The courtyard has a mixed functions, so we built a few translucent walls to deal the privacy matters among different functions. Its way of masonry work and its size are in strict accordance with the module of old courtyard brick on site. In a word, same type of material responds to different issues in different projects.

▽ 白塔寺项目中的玻璃砖墙划分了空间,The Wall of Glass Block Masonries Divided Different Functional Areas in The Courtyard Hybrid

Hybrid Courtyard Living 2   Hybrid Courtyard Living

 

5.
重庆项目:覆土建筑并不少见,其细部的构造应该也发展的相对成熟了。但在您的设计草图中出现了大量的节点手绘图,您的节点有什么特别之处呢?设计中覆土屋顶和女儿墙之间用锈钢板和石子隔开一条细带,请问这个细部是出于什么样的考量?
About Chongqing project: architecture with green roof is widely spread nowadays, and the tectonic method is developed well. But we noticed that you sketched lots of detail structures. What makes your sketches so particular? We noticed that the green roof and the parapet is separated by a thin belt of rusted steel plates with pebbles. You design this detail for what kind of considerations?

董功:对我们来说那些节点是为了满足那个特殊的房子,比如说你怎么控制材料相接、怎么控制垂直绿化的情况,自然而然就会有只属于那个项目的一些结点,那是要用草图的方式去研究。

细带有两个作用,第一因为覆土是有厚度的,我们不希望过厚的覆土被完全反映在女儿墙上,让建筑显得很厚重。所以覆土的高度退后了一个距离,这样建筑的女儿墙能够有一个更符合设计的比例。第二是排水,因为建筑是相对比较窄的,而那个沟是沿整个屋顶边界的最低点,所以屋顶的排水是从中间往两边排。水先排到沟里,又通过这个沟的找坡找到那个落水口。

Dong Gong: For us, those details are designed to meet the requirements of a particular building. For instance, we sketch how the different materials meets, and how to distribute vertical greening, etc. Naturally, there will be exclusive details for one specific project. And I prefer to study it by sketching.

The thin belts have two functions. Firstly, earth-shelter has a certain thickness. But we certainly do not want a visible thick earth-shelter and a result of a heavy building. So we set back the whole earth-shelter in a certain distance by application of the thin belt, and it results a better proportional parapet. The second reason is for drainage. The building has a relatively narrow width and that belt is the lowest point on the roof. So the water drains off from the roof center to sides, then runs along the slope in the ditches and finally falls down from the drain gully.

▽ 重庆桃源居社区中心项目节点草图,左侧为覆土屋顶细部,Detail Sketches in Chongqing Taoyuanju Community Center Project, to the Left is the Green Roof Detail Sketch

Chongqing Taoyuanju Community Center 00 (3)   00 (8)   Chongqing Taoyuanju Community Center 007

▽ 屋顶与女儿墙之间的细带,The Thin Belt Separated the Green Roof and the Parapet. MORE: 重庆桃源居社区中心 Chongqing Taoyuanju Community Center     Photo by 苏圣亮 Su Shengliang  

Chongqing Taoyuanju Community Center 01(2)

Chongqing Taoyuanju Community Center 01(3)

 

7.
您为何喜欢木纹混凝土?您是如何控制木纹混凝土的土质?
Why do you like wood-texture concrete? How to control the quality of wood-texture concrete?

董功:我也是最近一段时间用了几次木纹混凝土,其实每个项目里面虽然出现表面类似的材料,但是他们回应的问题也都有一些微差。在阳朔项目里,新楼里面其实是两种材料。一种是混凝土的界面,一种是混凝土砌块的界面,一个是实面,一个是镂空面。实面会在更微妙的层次,对老房子砖的模数有一个回应。木条的尺寸就是老房子砖的高度。所以从很多角度上,混凝土上留下来横向纹路跟老房子之间有很微妙的关联。这是阳朔项目用木纹混凝土一个重要的原因。

Dong Gong: I stared to use the wood grain fair-faced concrete only in my recent projects. As we talked, Concrete materials seems to be similar are still different when they responds to different contexts. For example there are two concrete materials in Yangshuo project, one is concrete façade while another is concrete blocks façade. Correspondingly, one is a solid wall and another is a pierced wall. The fair-faced concrete wall echoes the module of the grey bricks applied in the existing building, via the same height of each wood formwork and the grey brick. As a result, the horizontal wood-texture of the fair-faced concrete has a subtle relation with old buildings. That is why we use wood texture concrete in Yangshuo project.

▽ 实面与镂空面的组合带来更丰富的层次,The Combination of Solid Walls and Pierced Walls

Alila Yangshuo 11

木纹基本上是没法修的,因为木纹混凝土每一块木板都是不一样的,如果有一块地方漏浇了漏出钢筋,用水泥去补木纹基本是不太可能。所以木纹混凝土,对施工的技术要求更高。这牵涉到很多细节,比如木纹板的养护,木条的热胀冷缩、干燥和潮湿的程度,在施工的过程中都会影响到最后浇出来的效果。还有后方模板支撑坚固的程度,施工队有时候想省事就把后方支撑龙骨做的很松散,龙骨之间受力不够,就有可能爆浆,或者墙浇出来不平。总体来讲我觉得木纹混凝土比一般的混凝土工艺要复杂一些,要求更用心一些。

Basically, the surface of wood grain concrete is impossible to be repaired because each piece of the wood formwork has a unique texture. If a part of concrete is missed in casting process resulting the exposure of steel rebar, it is almost impossible to make up the missing part. Casting wood grain concrete requires high-level construction skills, which including many detailed technics, such as wood plate maintenances, the controlling technics of thermal expansion and contraction as well as humidity. All those construction technics will affect the ultimate quality and appearance of concrete. Moreover, the strength of formwork is also important in construction process. When it is not built dense enough, it may result in the leak of the concrete grout or an uneven surface with insufficient pressures. Overall, I think casting wood grain fair-faced concrete requires more complex construction technics, diligent hard work as well as comprehensive considerations.

▽ 实面墙体的构筑回应老房子砖的模数(阳朔建筑),The Fair-faced Concrete Wall Echoes the Module of the Grey Bricks Applied in the Existing Building (Alila Yangshuo).  

Alila Yangshuo 12   Alila Yangshuo 21

  

8.
经历多个项目,什么样的材料(或材料的什么属性)是您感到最难控制(或最有趣)的?
After experiencing multiple projects, what kinds of materials (or what properties of a material) are difficult to control the most (or what materials are the most interesting)?

董功:我觉得有时候材料的控制难与易,是建筑呈现出来的一种气质。比如用工业标准很严格的材料,做出来房子显得很新,很干净,很整齐,这也许跟建筑的价值和品质并没有太直接的关系,恰恰有的时候由于有一些材料比较难控制,比如竹钢,会变形有色差,玻璃砖在烧制的过程中,有时候气泡密一点,有时候气泡疏一点,就有色差,这是工业标准里面应该避免的事情。但这些“难控制”恰恰又体现了材料和人的某种关系,这些不好控制的东西呈现出来的差别性,反而让人觉得和这个房子之间有一种感情。所以我觉得很难去界定好控制的意义是什么,以及建筑和人更深层的关系,跟好不好控制是不是有关系。我自己更倾向材料制作过程中,人和天气这些因素都能最后印在那个材料上,成为这个建筑的一部分。这对我来讲,更有吸引力一些。

Dong Gong: I think whether a material is difficult to control or not, will be showed directly in architectures. For instance, using materials that are strictly followed industrial standards can make buildings looks new, clean and neat for a long term. But those materials do not have direct relation to the value and quality of the building. However, “difficult to control” quality of materials that should be avoided in industrial standards sometimes will surprise us. For example, Laminated Bamboo Slates may deform and fade in color. Moreover, in the manufacturing process of glass block masonries, different dense bubbles will lead to chromatic aberration. Sometimes those imperfections and unexpected consequences express a certain connection between materials and people, and bonding them emotionally. In a word, I think firstly it is hard to define the value of well-controlled materials. Secondly, it is hard to say whether the emotional bond between building and people relates to those “difficult to control” quality. Personally, I prefer to use materials that have traces left by people, weather or any other factors in manufacturing process and eventually those traces become a part of the building. It is more appealing and interesting to me.

▽ “难控制”非标准的建筑材料带来差别性,The None-standard Materials Bring Diversities to the Architecture  Photo by 苏圣亮 Su Shengliang(上 Upper),夏至 Xia Zhi (下 Lower)

Seashore Library 1a (33)   Seashore Library 1a (31)

Seashore Library 1a (24)

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除注明外一切图片版权归属于直向建筑
Unless otherwise specified, all photo credit: Vector Architects

更多关于直向建筑请移步直向建筑在gooood以及直向建筑
For more about Vector Architects, please visit Vector Architects on gooood and Vectors Architect



发表评论

14 评论

  1. 混凝土做的工艺不错

  2. 海边的图书馆,玻璃砖是用了,但整体效果总觉的哪里不够

  3. 看到玻璃砖一直在想着是否能撑很久的问题

  4. 好想跟着学习

  5. 玻璃砖展现的光影效果真的很棒

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  8. Profile photo of 易思毅

    一直都很喜欢董功的建筑,学习了

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