在海外专辑第五十九期 – 姜伯源

第五十九期为您奉上的是毕业于哥伦比亚大学,在SHoP工作的姜伯源。

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海外存知己,天涯若比邻。
在海外专辑分享海外华人的故事。希望这份分享可以让世界更加海阔天空。
第五十九期为您奉上的是毕业于哥伦比亚大学,,在SHoP工作的姜伯源。

A bosom friend afar brings distant land near. The Oversea album shares the lives of Chinese living abroad with all. The No.59 episode is about Boyuan Jiang, who graduated from Columbia University and working in SHoP.

 

为什么出国?
Why go abroad?

上学、透透气。
To study and take a breath.

 

在国外遇到了什么让你印象最深刻的事情?
Is there anything happened impressed you the most abroad?

纽约是包容性极高的世界都市,天南海北三教九流混在一起,时不时会碰到奇奇怪怪的人和事。待久了就觉得人怎么活着的都有,最难的是学会自知,然后安命。

New York is a global city with tremendous tolerance, where diverse populations and cultures somehow managed to live together. Occasionally I came across with interesting people and things that impressed me simply with their existence. The longer I stay the stronger I feel that introspection based self-understanding is probably the most difficult skill one is to learn to approach inner peace.

 

最想念祖国的什么?
What do you miss the most about China?

家人、文化、地气儿。
Family, culture and being grounded.

 

你会回国吗?为什么?
Will you come back? Why?

会。根在中国,而且我更喜欢中国的思维方式。
Yes. My root is in China, and I‘m more comfortable with the Chinese way of thinking in its intellectual sense.

 

出国后在不同的背景下再看中国是否看得更清晰,有哪些感触?
Is it more distinct to view China in a different environment after going abroad? Any thought?

以前感觉模糊的东西出国后会逐渐变得清晰,但同时以前熟悉的东西隔远了就慢慢看不明白了,得此失彼。
Those things that I felt unclear about before did get cloudless, but at the cost of losing explicit understanding of many other things that I used to be very familiar with.

 

你的学校有哪些教育特点?
What are the educational characteristics of your school?

可能所有哥大人答这题都会提到“多元”,这既是纽约文化得天独厚的影响,也是学院有意塑造的结果。尤其在我就读的M.Arch项目,半数学生没有建筑背景,三年下来有意思的交流很多。香港中文大学在我念本科时有比较浓厚的ETH色彩,重视基本功,强调空间、建构、材料这些本体性元素,正好和美东学校偏好概念纯度的风气互补了一下。

Probably all GSAPPers would mention “diversity” in our answers. It is both a gift of New York’s dynamic culture and a result of the school’s intention. The M.Arch program that I graduated from is especially so for admitting one half non-architecture background students, which embarks numerous inspiring communications in the program’s 3-year timespan. The School of Architecture at CUHK is pedagogically influenced by ETH when I was there. Its rigid training on basic skills and ontological emphasis of space, tectonic and materiality well complemented the east coast school’s preference of conceptual purity.

 

你现在工作公司的特色和有趣的地方?
What are the characteristics and interesting points of you firm?

SHoP Architects 近几年在美国比较火,尤其是在纽约圈子影响力较大。五个合伙人在入读哥大M.Arch项目前都没有建筑背景,毕业后成立了这家公司。早年的实践非常重视新技术、材料和生产的紧密结合,成为延续至今的特色。如Barclay Center等项目采用Catia设计和建模,与厂商实现无缝对接。公司一度拥有自己的生产和施工子公司SHoP Construction,尝试提供一体化的设计与建造服务。另外SHoP在全预制住宅、3d打印建筑、虚拟现实、设计方融资等领域也有深入的实践经验,属于美东前瞻性较强的公司。随着项目更加多元化以及体量的增大,SHoP目前已经发展到近200人规模,正在经历一次比较重要的转型期。

SHoP Architects is a rising star in recent years’ American architecture profession, especially influential in New York, where the five founding partners went to school at Columbia University GSAPP. With their various background, the early practices of SHoP focused on streamlining new technology, material and fabrication in architecture, which became one of the major characteristics the firm is known for today. Projects like the Barclay Center utilized Catia to better smoothen the friction between design and construction. Similar efforts also include establishing SHoP Construction, a separate company providing fabrication and construction services. The firm is also experienced in multiple advanced fields such as prefabrication, 3d printing, VR and financing their own projects. As the scope of work becoming larger and more diverse, SHoP has grown to a 200 people practice currently undergoing its critical turning point.

 

最喜欢的艺术家(绘画音乐电影等广泛范围)是谁?给你创作带来了什么影响?
Who is your favorite artist (in wider range such as art, music, movie)? What is the influence?

郭熙和莫奈。前者的《早春图》、《关山春雪图》和后者的睡莲都是我心目中的逸品。不过对我设计影响更大的可能是意大利的契里柯和中国的徐累,他们的作品以超现实手法分别精准地重塑了欧洲和中国的古典空间气质。

Guo Xi and Claude Monet. Guo’s Early Spring scroll and Spring Snow in Guan Mountain scroll, and Monet’s Water Lilies series are I-pin (untrammeled) class masterpieces to my standard. However, the most influential artworks for my architectural design probably come from Italian artist Giorgio de Chirico and Chinese painter Xu Lei. Despite being Surrealists, they precisely depicted European and Chinese classic spatial aesthetics respectively in their works.

▼左: 郭熙《早春图》(1702),Left: Guo Xi, Early Spring, 1072 /  右: 莫奈《睡莲》局部(1915-1926),Right: Claude Monet, Water Lilies (Detail), 1915-1926

▼左: 契里柯《一条街上的神秘与忧郁》(1914),Left: Giorgio de Chirico, Mystery and Melancholy of a Street / 右: 徐累《蝴蝶君》(2002),Right: Xu Lei, Mr. Butterfly, 2002

 

觉得自己的作品集有哪些迷人的特质?
What amazing character do your works have?

特质是比较温吞暧昧吧,算不上迷人。读研后我有意识地通过提高设计的空想性来发掘和表达自己对不同议题的观点,过程中逐渐发现我的思维方式和审美态度都很东方。与西方对客体的极化关注相比,我对多个极点之间含混的区间有着天然兴趣,习惯把“关系”本身作为探讨的对象,作品都在处理一组或多组对立元素之间的平衡(如自然-人工、个体-群体、自由-秩序这类),试图在这些极点所处的场域中找到最适合设计切入的位置来揭示、调和各种矛盾。这样的出发点最终指向了一种比较中庸的气质,理想状态下希望取得箭在弦上蓄而不发的势能和张力。这个手法对我的吸引力或许来自它与汉文化传统里重随化而轻穷极的契合,倾向把相对绝对化。作品集的名字《间》用“RELATE”作英译,也是想表达这层意思。

Probably Vagueness and Equivocality are the characters, though not amazing. At GSAPP, I tried to use my projects to understand and express my views toward various topics by intentionally idealizing the designs to relatively utopian extents. In this process I realized how my intellectual thinking and aesthetic interests are different from the western traditions. Rather than focusing on polarized objects (either abstract or physical), I intuitively tend to investigate the indefinite field among the objects. My works always try to balance one or more pairs of contradictory relations, such as Nature-Human, Individuality-Collectivity, Freedom-Order, etc., to find the most appropriate location for the designs to embark meaningful dialogues. Placing “relation” at the center of my scope leads to fuzzy results suggesting infinite potentials and, hopefully, powerful tensions. My favor for such approach is probably originated from its homology with traditional Han Chinese culture, which tends to intellectually absolutize relativity. This is also where my portfolio’s name, RELATE, comes from.

 

什么时候开始看谷德网的?有什么建议提供给我们吗?
When did you start to follow gooood? Any suggestions?

大概四五年前,当时不太熟悉内地建筑界,通过谷德了解了很多建筑师和事务所。希望谷德作为植根华语地区的媒体平台,能继续沟通中国和世界。

About 4 to 5 years ago, when I was not familiar with mainland’s architecture practices, Gooood introduced many Chinese architects and firms to me. I wish the platform could continue bridging China to the rest of the world.

 

 

W O R K

 

1.

神田山 | Kanda Mountain

地点:东京
导师:Sarah Dunn
时间:2016 春
哥伦比亚大学毕业设计,Lucille Smyser Lowenfish Memorial Prize 获奖方案。

Location: Tokyo
Instructor: Sarah Dunn
Time: Spring 2016
Columbia University GSAPP final project. Recipient of the Lucille Smyser Lowenfish Memorial Prize.

神田山是我空想和讽刺程度最高的作品。导师Sarah Dunn设置的课程大纲实验性很强,以研究二十世纪中叶的巨构建筑风潮为起点,由学生自己选择东京的一项社会问题,自选基地进行乌托邦式巨构设计,学期末每个学生创作一张以剖面为主的巨幅建筑图为最终成果。我选择的关注点是东京的老龄化问题。日本的老龄人口比例常年高居世界前列,2015 年,日本政府提出构想,计划将一百万生活在东京都市圈的老年人移至偏远地区,以此达到疏解东京人口压力与带动地方经济的一石二鸟之功。然而这项提议被社会广泛批评为可行性低、漠视老年人参与都市生活的愿望与努力。神田山作为对这一政策的讽刺性回应,通过在东京市中心建造一座7英里长的巨构建筑为这一百万老年人提供居住空间,并试图从多个角度连通历史与当下,使老年人的传统与东京充满活力的都市文化相互渗透。

项目由十一座山形建筑连绵排列在神田河历史河道上构成。作为古代东京都护城河,神田河曾经是东京重要的人工运河与城市地标。伴随着城市扩张,今天它的一半河道被埋入地下,另外一半与市民隔绝,除了沿其走向运行的地铁线路勉强暗示着它的存在外,神田河几乎从人们生活中消失,这与当下东京老年人在社会中的失语状态恰好呼应。将基地选在河道上方,既可以方便对接沿河道肌理修建的现存基础设施,又可以迫使东京重新面对老年人的诉求以及它自身的历史。

The Kanda Mountain is the most utopian and sarcastic architectural work of mine. Instructor Sarah Dunn set up an experimental syllabus for the studio: starting with a revisit to the Megastructure fever of the mid-20th century, asking students to choose their own sites and social topics in Tokyo to design a megastructure, and finishing the term with one large sectional drawing from each student. Tokyo’s greying problem is chosen as the theme for this project. Japan’s greying crisis is thought to outweigh all other nations as it has the highest elderly population proportion in the world. In 2015, in response to the foreseeing elderly nursing pressure of Tokyo City, the Japanese government proposed to move 1 million elderly citizens from Tokyo to multiple suburban areas. However, this plan is criticized for its feasibility and being inconsiderate to aged population who are striving to be a part of the city’s dazzling modern urban culture. Designed to provide a sarcastic alternative, the Kanda Mountain is a 7-mile long megastructure in the center of Tokyo to accommodate the city’s elderly population, connect the past with the contemporary, and introduce possibilities for nurturing new cross-generation cultures.

The project is composed of 11 mountain-like buildings extruded along the historical trace of the Kanda River, a half-abandoned, historically important waterway whose own history metaphorically resonates with the elderlies’ contemporary “hidden” condition in Tokyo. Relocating the aged population to such a site will not only utilize existing infrastructure built along the river, but also redefine the public vision against both the elderlies’ aspirations and the city’s own past.

▼概念拼贴,Concept Collage

选用山作为巨构的形态首先是出自它在日本文化中重要的精神地位,其次是因为日本传说里对于“弃老山”的记载暗合了我所讽刺的主题。相传在远古时期,人们会将失去劳动力的老人抛弃在深山中任其自行死去,而日本政府的提案也多少带有抛弃高龄人口的色彩。神田山在这种文化背景下于东京市中心的废河上拔地而起,便成为连接多重寓意的、供奉被遗弃者的圣殿。十一峰的具体形式来自对谷文晁1820年出版的《日本名山图会》的研究。它们除供老年人居住外,各自拥有因应其所处地段而设定的城市公共功能。例如横跨秋叶原驿的“秋叶原桥”提供电子、动漫产业相关设施;拟态富士山的“圣山”位于皇居-富士山连线与神田河的交点,在满足多种宗教功能的同时还令人回忆起从该地可以直接望到富士山的古代。这些空间将城市机能引入老人的日常生活,希望能够建立有效的都市尺度的代际沟通,使高龄人口重回社会大众视野之中。

Besides its well-known spiritual symbolism in Japanese culture, Mountain particularly echoes with the aging theme with a unique Japanese tradition. Ubasute, literally means ‘Elderly Abandoning Mountain’, refers to the custom allegedly performed in ancient Japan, whereby people carried their elderly relatives to a remote mountain and left them there to die. The story sarcastically reflects the present situation of the government’s relocation plan. As an artificial mountain erected above the trace of the Kanda River, the Kanda Mountain tries to juxtapose all these metaphorical meanings, and through them critically question the social alienation of today’s elderly generation. The exact forms of the Kanda Mountain are designed based on a typological study of the 1820 book “Illustrations of Japanese Famous Mountains” by Tani Buncho. Besides providing elderly accommodations, the 11 mountains are each assigned with one distinct program responding to its immediate urban context. For instance, the Akihabara Bridge spanning over Akihabara Station supports digital and comic industry, the Holy Mountain, taking the shape of Mount Fuji and locating at the intersection point of the Imperial Palace-Mount Fuji axis and the Kanda River, provides multi-religious spaces while reminding people of the ancient time when Mount Fuji is visible from that location. These specific functions try to bring Tokyo’s dynamic urban life closer to the elderlies and establish an effective cross-generation communication at a city scale.

▼左:神田河曾是东京都护城河,Left: The Kanda River used to be Tokyo’s city moat / 右:《日本名山图会》中的山形,Right: Mountain forms in Illustrations of Japanese Famous Mountains

▼神田山十一峰分段模型,Models of the eleven mountains

▼以日本传统屏风形式绘制的神田山十一峰剖面,Sections of the eleven mountains drawn as a Byobu.

▼上:知山所在的市谷地区保留了神田河最宽的水面,为老人及临近的多所高等学府提供教学设施。Above: The Knowledge Hills located in Ichigaya provides educational facilities for both the elderlies and nearby universities / 下:位于御茶之水的康山毗邻多家医学院与医疗机构,为长者提供健康服务。Below: Located in Ochanomizu where multiple medical schools and hospitals gathered, The Health Strata provides healthcare services to the elderlies.

▼康山,The Health Strata

▼知山,The Knowledge Hills

▼圣山是神田山主峰,位于皇居-富士山连线与神田河的交点上,包含各种宗教空间。历史上从该位置可以直接看到富士山。As the Peak of the Kanda Mountain, the Holy Mountain contains various religious spaces. It is located at the intersection of the Imperial Palace-Mount Fuji axis and the Kanda River, where Mount Fuji could be seen with bare eyes in the past.

▼圣山的主殿为多信仰集会空间,以巨幅LED屏幕环绕中央一道从神田河取水而成的瀑布。The multi-faith Main Hall of the Holy Mountain features a giant 360 degree LED screen surrounding a central waterfall created from the Kanda River water source.

▼上:溜池山以空中温泉再现了历史上神田河在此处形成的宽阔蓄水池。Above: The Tameike Onsen reproduces the historical Kanda River Reservoir in the form of a sky onsen / 下:赤坂山以公共空中森林呼应赤坂御用地的皇家私有园林。Below: The Akasaka Woods provides a public sky forest to resonate with the private garden in the Akasaka Imperial Palace.

▼溜池山,The Tameike Osen

▼赤坂山,远景为赤坂御用地。The Akasaka Woods with the Akasaka Imperial Palace in the background.

▼筑地鱼山接收了因东京奥运会而被迫关闭的筑地鱼市的功能。The Tsukiji Fish Mountain takes on the function of the Old Tsukiji Fish Market, which is going to be closed for Tokyo Olympics.

尽管神田十一峰具有较强的讽刺意味与乌托邦色彩,它仍然是建基于大量严肃的基地与社会学调研之上的设计,为东京提供了解决高龄人口增长的一种可能方案,并试图激发新的生活方式,令老年人的价值观和社会贡献得到应有的揭示与尊重。山形和废水的共生有意触碰两种在东方文化中具有象征意义的自然元素,使神田山与历史上那些通过塑造物理空间来呼唤神灵的努力一脉相承:在东京建一座长城,为逝去的时光招魂。

Despite the obvious sarcasm and playfulness of the design, the project is based on serious site and social researches and provides a possible solution for Tokyo’s growing aging population. The programmatic and spatial arrangements are designed to provoke refreshing mixed lifestyles where the value of the elderly traditions could be revealed and respected. Mountain and water are the two most symbolic natural figures in traditional Eastern culture. The symbiosis of them in Kanda Mountain is in line with all the ancient artificial attempts to summon spirits through physical forms. A great wall is erected in Tokyo to resuscitate the fading ghost of the past.

▼从康山望向圣山,两者之间即为古代东京都范围。View of the Holy Mountain from the Health Strata. Historical Tokyo city is enclosed in between.

▼神田十一峰图绘屏风,Kanda Mountain Byobu

 

 

2.

山水堂 | Mountain-Water Church

地点:香港
导师:黄圣钧
时间:2012 春
香港中文大学毕业设计

Location: Hong Kong
Instructor: Patrick Hwang
Time: Spring 2012
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, School of Architecture final project.

虽然山水堂的任务书要求设计一座基督教堂,我却希望能够淡化特定宗教的色彩,转而利用这个建筑为到访者提供一次自我发现的精神之旅。项目座落在香港吐露港畔的山脚下,环境幽美。狭长的梭状基地只能从南侧尖端进入,暗示了一种自然中的轴向运动,促成了“游园”这个初始概念的形成。我选取中国传统造园手法中“叠山理水”和“移步换景”两个意向,并结合中国横轴山水画的情绪节奏,在进行一定程度偷换概念的基础上,以楼喻山、以池喻水,设计了一程具有古典园林趣味的空间叙事序列。

Although the project is required to be designed as a Christian Church, I try to minimize the influence of specific religious motif and make the Mountain-Water Church a place for visitors to experience a spiritual journey of self-rediscovery. The long and narrow site is located at the foot of a hill near the Tolo Harbor in Hong Kong. The natural context and the shape of the site with its single entrance at one end suggest a linear spatial movement through nature, initiating the concept of “a journey through a garden”. The project is inspired by the representation of Mountain and Water in traditional Chinese garden designs. ‘Stacking mountain, planning water (叠山理水)’ is the design method using rock, creek and pond to represent the mountain, river and lake in real nature, intimately connecting the mortal human scale to the eternal nature. ‘View changes with moving steps (移步换景)’ describes the rich visual experience achieved by precisely controlled views along designed travel routes. Based on the above two methods and the understanding of emotional rhythm in traditional Chinese landscape paintings, a narrative spatial experience is choreographed in the Mountain-Water Church.

▼上:概念图,Above: Concept Drawing / 中:山水堂轴测图,Middle: Water-Mountain Church axonometric drawing / 下:富春山居图节奏分析,Below: Rhythm analysis of the Dwelling in Fuchun Mountains

教堂分前后两部分,后部主要为僧侣居住修行空间,前部为公共场所。访客在到达前部入口后会穿过一片室外池塘并看到一道跌入池塘的小瀑布。继续前进,在经过一条围绕钟塔广场的长廊后,访客即进入光线相对昏暗的室内大堂,他们可以从这里上至二层以进入教堂的主体空间礼拜大殿。旅程的高潮发生在大殿入口处,访客们俯瞰大殿尽端的神坛,会“再次”见到一片被自然光照亮的水面,上面漂浮着牧师的讲坛与十字架,水体正缓缓流出建筑,跌入室外池塘,形成的正是他们甫一到达时经过的小瀑布。这样,由旅程起始时下意识体验到的水与光,至旅程中段建筑对这两个元素的压抑,再到神坛处对二者的重新发现,形成一套自我反馈的情景叙事。小瀑布作为空间转合的关键,令终点体验流向起点体验,由此,水的循环在经验层面消解了时间的线性行进。如果说进入大殿前的旅程寓意基督教的“苦路”,那么神坛的水流更希望达到类似佛教的“觉悟”时刻, 创造一个供礼拜者冥想和自观的契机。

The Church is divided into two parts, the back part are primarily living and studying spaces for the priests, while the front part serves for public events. Visitors will pass through an exterior pond with the view of a small cascade upon their arrival at the entrance. After walking through a shaded corridor leading to the main lobby, they step up a staircase to enter the Congregation Hall from the second floor, where the climax of the itinerary happens. Here they will “rediscover” a sky-lit interior water surface at the altar, which flows out of the building to form the cascade falling into the entry pond. Thus, from the unconsciously experienced light and water at the start of the journey, to the intentional architectural suppression of these two elements in the middle of the journey, until the rediscovery of them at the sublime moment, the narrative scenes create a self-reflective adventure. As a key component connecting the two water bodies, the cascade links the beginning and the end of the itinerary and dissolves the linearity of time at a phenomenological sense. If the journey traveled before entering the Congregation Hall could be seen as the Christian “Via Dolorosa”, the revealing of the altar is designed more as a Buddhist “Moment of Enlightenment”, providing an opportunity for visitors to meditate and introspect.

▼平面图, Plans

▼剖面图,Sections

▼大殿神坛,Altar at the Congregation Hall

▼左:大殿节点图,Left: Congregation Hall detail drawings / 右:流线分析,Right: Circulation diagram

▼叙事场景序列分析,Narrative sequence analysis

除去使用分散错落的体量和入口池塘来呼应基地所处的自然环境外,山水堂还化用了其他一些传统中国园林的设计技巧, 如布满立面的木格栅限制了观者的视野,令格栅后的同一片风景可以根据观者的位移被不断重新体验。游园过程中的每次造景均为下一场景做铺垫,山水堂的叙事层次如卷轴徐展,安静地引导、等待到访者开始一场同自我的对话。

Besides using building massing and water feature to resonate with the mountain and harbor in the surrounding context, there are other traditional-Chinese-garden-inspired designs adopted in this project. For instance, the timber fins on the facade break visitors’ views into fragments so that even the same landscape can be constantly rediscovered while they move through the space. The Water-Mountain Church unrolls itself as a traditional Chinese scroll painting, gently waiting to embark the visitors on dialogues with their inner-selves.

▼大堂入口模型, Model of the Lobby entrance

 

 

3.

自证池 | Pygmalion Pool

地点:纽约
导师:Janette Kim
时间:2013 秋

Location: New York
Instructor: Janette Kim
Time: Fall 2013

自证池也是我空想程度较高的作品,通过激进的建筑试验回应社会问题。项目要求在纽约的道格拉斯公屋社区中设计一座小型游泳馆。在基地调研时,我发现这个专供低收入人群居住的小区里布满了管理公司在显眼位置安装的监控镜头以及张贴的各种警示标语,小区内的公共设施和绿地都设有很高的围栏,并且会在夜晚关闭以防发生破坏。而一街之隔的中高档住宅区内,监控镜头都隐藏在角落里,绿地和公共设施全天开放,标语全部以“请”字开头。更加讽刺的是,在充满监视的道格拉斯社区里,仍然随处可见涂鸦与破坏。通过进一步研究,我发现媒体和管理者对政府公屋存在大量负面的报道及预判,形成将居住其内的低收入者与犯罪、吸毒、涂鸦等行为捆绑的思维定势。

在心理学领域,作为自证预言分支的皮格马利翁效应表明,对他人的正/负面预期会诱导其进行自我暗示并最终做出相应行为。对公屋领域中发生的这一效应,最著名的案例来自Pruitt–Igoe。在2011年的纪录片《The Pruitt-Igoe Myth》中,当年的居民回忆了一个细节:在一栋楼的灯具被好事者破坏后,管理方的反应是迅速为所有灯具加装防护网,这导致“更多人想把灯弄坏”。道格拉斯社区的情况与此如出一辙。

The Pygmalion Pool is another utopian work of mine trying to respond social problems with radical architectural approach. The swimming pool project is located in a NYCHA managed public housing community named Douglass Housing, where the majority occupants are low-income people. Numerous surveillance cameras, strong fences and warning signs suggesting ‘correct behavior’ flood every dominant public space in the community. As a sharp contrast, the high-end housing community across street hides all surveillance cameras from public views, opens up outdoor amenities and starts all their signage with a “Please”. What is even more ironic is that vandalism is still very obvious in Douglass Housing. Further research on New York’s public housing shows that media and management bodies tend to associate the low-income residents with typical labels such as crime, vandalism and drug addiction.

The Pygmalion Effect is a Self-Fulfillment Prophecy being widely adopted in psychological studies to describe the phenomenon whereby higher/lower expectations lead to an increase/decrease in performance. As an example, in the 2011 documentary The Pruitt-Igoe Myth, a former resident recalled a detail: after someone broke a lighting fixture, the management’s immediate response was installing protection for all lights, which ‘only make more people trying to break them.’ Similarly, NYCHA’s surveillance and over-controlling also contributes to the unsatisfied status of Douglass Housing.

▼道格拉斯社区中的监控与警告,以及媒体对公屋的报道。Surveillance and warning in Douglass Housing, and media reports covering public housing.

▼自证预言/皮格马利翁效应,Self-Fulfillment Prophecy / Pygmalion Effect

自证池试图通过激进地改变对居民的预期来回应这一问题。建筑的主体部分由十二座称为“楼岛”的塔状结构支撑,悬浮于向城市街道倾斜的坡体之上,打破原本封闭的围墙,令社区自信地向外开放。垂直连通地面、泳池与屋面的楼岛是项目应用自证预言理论的关键元素,除部分用作公共交通外,其余楼岛均作为可以被临时“私有化”的无监视空间。这些楼岛内部均设有储物柜、更衣间、洗手间以及一部作为多功能空间的双层大型液压升降机。使用者可以自行安排多功能空间的用途与布置,在泳池开放时可以在楼岛内停留任意时长。访客进入楼岛后,所有入口会被锁定,拒绝外人进入。这些不透明的结构被设想为向居民提供公共场所中少有的私密与自由体验的空间,人们可以带上一张折叠床在一栋楼岛里待一下午而不进入泳池,甚至吸毒、做爱、酗酒都不被禁止。

The Pygmalion Pool tries to respond to this problem by radically change the negative expectation upon the residents. The pool is hanged above a sloping ground by twelve vertical structures named ‘tower islands’, which are the key features for applying Self-Fulfillment Prophecy theory in this project. Apart from some being used as public vertical circulation cores, most islands are designed to be surveillance-free temporary ‘private’ spaces, each contains a locker, a changing room, bathrooms, and a double-level hydraulic elevator as undefined multi-functional spaces. The islands can be temporarily locked at all entrances when being used, isolating users from the public water above and the public ground below and thus redefines the psychological identity of both levels. Visitors can use the islands in whatever way they prefer and stay for as long as they want while the pool is open. The islands are conceived as spaces providing the residents with extreme privacy and freedom. They can bring furniture into the multi-use spaces and spend an afternoon there without entering the pool; even drug, sex and alcohol are not prohibited.

▼体现楼岛构思的概念图,Concept drawing depicting the Tower Islands

▼平面图,Plans

▼剖面图, Section

▼轴测图,Axonometric drawing

▼楼岛,Tower Islands

▼泳池室内,Interior View

▼泳池室内,Interior View

通过短暂地将公共领域转变为私有空间并将绝对控制权交给使用者,项目希望建立对居民的正面预期激励,从而形成社区风气的正向行为循环。这种激进的设定或许并不能提供实际的解决方案, 但可以令我们重新审视正逐渐淡出学术界的对社会阶层与空间正义关系的辩证讨论。

By temporarily privatizing a public space, and by returning the absolute control back to the hands of the users, the project might help to establish a positive cycle of expectations and transform the residents’ performance. While such radical argument cannot provide any practical solutions, it does remind us of the critical relation between social class and spatial justice, a topic fading away from today’s academic discussions.

▼自证池成为道格拉斯社区的入口。The Pygmalion Pool functions as the gateway to Douglass Housing.

 

 

4.

河廊园 | Xs Campus

地点:华盛顿特区
导师:Janette Kim
合作者(前期):陶一凡
时间:2015 春

Location: Washington D.C.
Instructor: Janette Kim
Partner (Phase 1): Jack Tao
Time: Spring 2015

华盛顿科科伦艺术与设计学院(CCAD)河廊园校区是我作品中概念与操作都比较复杂的项目,它试图讨论大型公共项目里自上而下的顶层设计(“X”)与自下而上的社区参与(“s”)之间的策略张力,并探索设计者在此过程中的角色位置。课程重点训练“策略思维”,教学大纲分为两段:前期学生分组为华盛顿面临的洪水危机提供解决机制,并将其设计成一套桌游;后期在此基础上自选基地和业主,独立设计一座校园。项目的最终成果是一组由三个尺度构成的综合策略:一个在城市尺度重塑景观的蓄洪水系、一个在社区尺度整合功能的大学校园、以及一个在生活尺度平衡各方诉求的自治系统。

在设计前期,我们针对华盛顿特区的洪水危机构想了一套名为“WET-LINE”的人工蓄洪系统。由于华盛顿的洪水区大部分与一条被掩埋的河流流域重叠,我们提出打开河道、引水入城的方案,作为基础设施的水系同时也为更新城市景观及经济增长带来发展机遇。在将WET-LINE提案设计为桌游IN HOT WATER时,我们设定了政府、企业家、市民三个玩家角色,他们既要竞争资源,又要共同合作才能赢得游戏。玩家若在规定轮内(洪水到来前)完成各自区域内的水系建设任务并与其他玩家的水系连通,则资源(游戏币)最多者获胜,若在规定轮内未能建成完整连通的水系,则无人获胜。设计游戏过程中,我们必须深入研究不同群体在城市更新项目中的利益诉求并建立多元的博弈机制,这对我其后独立设计的河廊园影响很大。

The Xs Campus for Corcoran College of Art and Design (CCAD) in Washington D.C. is probably the most complicated student project of mine. It discusses the strategic tension between top-down design (“X”) and bottom-up local involvements (“s”) in large-scale urban projects, and tests the designer’s role in such process. The studio, focusing on Strategic Thinking in design, is divided into two phases. Phase 1 requires students working in groups to design a systematic solution for D.C.’s flood risk and transform it into a board game; phase 2 asks students to individually design a campus based on the phase 1 proposal. My final design is deployed in three scales: a citywide waterway system to resist flooding risk, a communal campus to integrate urban functions, and an autonomous strategy to reconcile users’ daily appeals.

In phase 1, we developed an infrastructural waterway system named WET-LINE to solve D.C.’s flooding risk. As D.C.’s inland flooding zone is paralleled with a historically existed creek, we proposed to reintroduce water back into the city as a system to trap the flood impact during extreme conditions and provide new urban landscape and economic opportunities. When translating the WET-LINE into the board game IN HOT WATER, we set up three players as the Government, the Entrepreneur and the Citizen, each has to both compete and collaborate with the other players to win the game. If they could finish the waterway construction in their own region and connect them with each other’s waterways within required rounds (before the flood comes), the player with the most resources (game money) wins; if they could not meet the collaboration requirement, all players will lose. We have to understand different social groups’ appeals and establish diverse game mechanisms in this design process, which deep influences my design of the Xs Campus in phase 2.

▼WET-LINE 水系规划图,WET-LINE Proposal planning

▼上:WET-LINE 水系蓄洪机制,Above: WET-LINE flood resisting mechanism / 下:WET-LINE对国家广场地区的改造构想,Below: WET-LINE reshapes the National Mall

▼WET-LINE 对国会山前广场改造构想,The Capitol, the WET-LINE Proposal

▼IN HOT WATER 桌游初始设定,The Board game IN HOT WATER initial set up

▼IN HOT WATER 桌游结束状态,The Board game IN HOT WATER as finished

我把作为WET-LINE附属设施的河廊园基地选在位于洪水区内的Randall社区。这里虽然地处特区中心、有丰富的功能空间,却一直缺乏如华盛顿其他区域那样清晰的城市身份。我在调研中发现CCAD曾一度考虑将这里闲置的原Randall中学老楼改造为它的分校,于是以其为假想业主展开设计。项目希望能够以大学的空间需求整合区内现有的各种城市功能,并让各利益攸关方参与进设计的决策过程中,使河廊园在落成时就可以为社区带来积极改变。为此,我将校园建筑分为三个层级:大层级为WET-LINE水道,即“河”;中层级为两层高的预制混凝土框架与核心筒,作为校园的基础形式,即“廊”;小层级为业主与社区各相关方在廊内合建的功能空间“榭”。 建筑师在这个系统内的权力逐层减弱:我拥有对河道这一政府基建项目的绝对设计权,但只向业主提供“廊”的预制设计与基地相关控规,对“榭”则不作具体设计。

The campus site is selected to be the Randall neighborhood, one major inland flooding zone without clear urban identity, yet has convenient accessibility and a wide range of existing urban functions. The CCAD has once considered the Randall Junior high school building in this neighborhood as their new campus location, thus the design invites the CCAD back as the client and tries to utilize and integrate the existing urban programs into the campus. The design is architecturally achieved by the WET-LINE waterway as the macro-scale urban grid, a continuous 2-story prefabricated concrete skeleton system called FRAME as the middle-scale infrastructure defining the campus form, and plug-in programmatic spaces named BUBBLEs, developed under the collaboration of CCAD and local groups. The architect’s power decreases in these three-scale system: I have the absolute design control of the WET-LINE waterway, while only providing FRAME prefabrication catalogs and site design code to the client and leaving the BUBBLEs as conceptual elements.

▼河、廊、榭三要素, The WET-LINE waterway, the FRAME and the BUBBLE

▼河廊园预制模块目录,The Xs Campus prefabrication catalog

▼河廊园与基地现存建筑结合的一些可能构想,Possible scenarios of the Xs Campus elements intersecting with existing structures

▼河廊园三要素的一种组合可能,Possible combination of the three elements in Xs Campus

▼对Randall中学旧楼被改造为CCAD画廊空间的想象,Imaginary illustration of the Randall School Building being renovated as CCAD Gallery

▼对Xs剧场空间的想象,画面右侧为目前作为演艺俱乐部使用的教堂建筑。 Imaginary illustration of the Xs Theatre. To the right is a church building currently occupied by a preforming club.

▼对河廊园跨越高架桥的想象,Imaginary illustration of the Xs Campus spanning over elevated highways

▼对河廊园图书馆亲水空间的想象, Imaginary illustration of the Xs Campus Library

▼对河廊园一社区教堂地块建造过程中被赋予不同使用功能的想象,Imaginary illustration of the Xs Campus performing various functions during its construction process on a parcel with a community church

与桌游类似,河廊园项目与其说是建筑设计,不如说是策略设计:依据城市现有功能与土地所有状况,WET-LINE河道贯穿的基地被划分为九段共十六个地块,各以指定的学校功能嫁接社区功能,如宿舍对接住宅区、剧场对接表演俱乐部、医务室对接社区诊所等。所有地块的产权所有者或利益攸关方和业主共同讨论,从建筑师提供的预制“廊”目录中挑选模块,在满足相邻地块的“廊”必须对接的要求后,自由决定各段“廊”的具体位置和形态。其后,业主与各方根据各自协议在各地块分别推进“廊”的施工,并自行聘请第三方设计和建造“榭”。项目有趣的地方在于我要设计一套体制来限制自己的设计权限,过程中需要不断思考对城市公共项目而言,设计者到底要控制什么、如何控制。对于综合考虑多种诉求的大尺度规划,是否应将妥协视为正面结果?自我设限的目的是使设计有足够余地自发生长,希望河廊园的形象并不会定格在“榭”被完成的时刻,而是在被使用、维护、改变、淹没、保护或拆毁的过程中真正融入师生与市民琐碎的生活记忆中,获得实在的生命力。

Like the board game, the Xs Campus is a design of strategy rather than physical forms: the site is divided into 9 segments with total 16 parcels along the WET-LINE waterway, each assigned with a campus program to be integrated with existing urban functions. For instance, the dormitory parcel is close to residential buildings, the theatre is close to a performance club, the infirmary is close to a community clinic, etc. The client and the local stakeholder/landlords will collectively choose the FRAMEs from a catalog provided by the architect and decide the exact location of the FRAMEs as long as they could be connected with each other at parcel boundaries. The construction of the FRAMEs is then carried out respectively according to the contracts individually signed between CCAD and each local group. Finally, they will hire third parties to design and build the BUBBLEs per their varied demands. The intriguing part of the project is that I have to design a system that restrains my own design scope. It requires rethinking of architects’ role in public urban designs: what and how to control? Should compromise be considered as a positive result in large scale planning projects where ongoing dialogues and collaborative decision-makings are necessary? The reason for self-constrain is to leave enough room for the project’s spontaneous growth in the future. Hopefully the completion of the BUBBLEs will not mark the completion of the campus. Only in the process of being used, maintained, altered, flooded, preserved or destroyed could the Xs Campus be truly embedded into the trivial life and memory of its users and acquire profound vitality.

▼对日常情况下河廊园WET-LINE水道的想象,Imaginary illustration of the Xs Campus WET-LINE waterway in normal situations

▼对河廊园WET-LINE水道遭遇洪水时的想象,Imaginary illustration of the Xs Campus WET-LINE waterway in a flood

▼河廊园同时被建设、改造与拆毁的场景,可能更接近现实中会发生的场景。The Xs Campus being constructed, renovated and dismantled at the same time. Probably a more accurate image for the real world situation.

 

 

5.

一屏寺 | Shade Temple

地点:纽约
导师:Thomas Phifer, Gabriel Smith
时间:2015 秋

Location: New York.
Instructor: Thomas Phifer, Gabriel Smith
Time: Fall 2015

一屏寺是一处坐落于曼哈顿崔恩堡公园中的佛教禅宗集会与冥想场所,它试图通过揭示基地原有的精神力量来探讨人工与自然的关系 。设计以尽量少的人工构筑在物理和心理两个层面重组人们对现有环境的认知,使访客感受汉传佛教“众生悉有佛性”的教义。这条教义将有情与无情两类存在统一在佛性框架内,暗示重新思考人工与自然造物的可能性。一屏寺的概念即发源于创造一个只有与基地环境一起体验时才具有意义的建筑,亦即人工构筑物与自然环境二者以同等重要性共同组成一座道场。

对基地环境的高度敏感是一屏寺设计的关键。项目主体为一道沿基地边缘蜿蜒起伏的烧杉板木屏及步道,它将台状基地西、北侧的树木和中心草坪分隔开来,形成两个主要功能区。地势高而开阔的中心草坪被西、北侧木屏和东侧的讲坛合围,形成较大的集会空间;木屏另一侧地势较低的西、北边缘作为个人冥想空间,以三个小平台分别对应基地现存的三处具有一定精神性的空间节点(一块位于灌木丛中空地上的巨石、被树木框景的哈德逊河、以及一个出挑的小悬崖)。木屏在界定场所感的同时亦勾勒出地势的起伏,而其高度被设定为使站在讲坛处的人刚好可以看到一小部分哈德逊河,这些手法令木屏成为帮助访客认识基地自然环境的工具。在三个打坐平台处,连通木屏两侧的“门”被特别设计,使得木屏的一部分条木能够被次第掀起,令访客可以如同潜入布帘般悄无声息地快速穿透木屏,出入隐藏其后的冥想空间。

Located in the Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, the Shade Temple is a Zen Buddhist congregational and meditational space. It discusses the relation between human and nature through revealing the spiritual energy of its site. By physically and mentally reframing nature with minimum artificial intervention, the temple provides a field for visitors to recognize the “Buddha-Nature” within all beings. The Buddhist statement “All (including living and nonliving) beings possess inherent potential to become Buddha” indicates the possibility to rethink the relation between artificial products and natural beings. The concept of Shade Temple is to create a structure that would not be meaningful without being experienced together with its site context. In other words, artificial structure and natural environment are considered as equally important counterparts to compose the Bodhimaṇḍa of Shade Temple.

High sensitivity to site environment is the key for designing Shade Temple. A linear screen made of charred wood gently meanders along the boundary of the site, separating the central open lawn area from the trees and bushes at periphery. While the lawn, together with a pulpit, is mainly dedicated to collective experience and congregational events, three platforms at the other side of the screen mark three existing “spiritual” spots on the site (A large rock on a clearing land; View of the Hudson River framed by trees; Edge of a small cliff) as individual meditational spaces. The screen not only defines program, but also acknowledges visitors of the site. Its shape follows the topographical change and its height is precisely designed so that a person standing at the pulpit can see a tiny part of the Hudson River while the periphery of the site is concealed. Special designed gates at each of the meditational spots allow visitors to sneak through the screen as quick and quiet as possible as if they are passing through a soft curtain.

▼平面图,Plan

▼剖面图,Section

▼局部剖面图,Detail section

▼局部剖面图,Detail section

▼一屏寺集会空间,右侧为讲坛,可以远眺木屏背后的哈德逊河。The congregational space in Shade Temple with the Pulpit to the right. View of the Hudson River beyond the screen is depicted.

▼向步道突出的条木标示着通向冥想空间的门,The gate to the meditational space is indicated by the projected timber strip

▼木门如布帘般被掀起,The gate opens as a soft curtain

▼三个打坐台之一以及被树木框景的哈德逊河,View of the Hudson River framed by trees and one of the three meditational platforms

▼一屏寺的五种建构类型,Five tectonic types in Shade Temple

▼组装细节,Assembly details

如画家亨利·马蒂斯名言“我合上双眼,所看更清晰”中的禅机,一屏寺以“遮”为“觉”,以轻简的手法拿捏人工与自然造物的平衡,使访客通过外向的体验达致内向的证悟。完全因应基地环境而生的木屏强化了场所精神,场所反过来又给予木屏生机和禅意。人造的建筑不会、也不该取代自然空间,它能够做到的是谨慎地揭示与引导后者原生的力量。毕竟,人与自然间本来没有分野,它们相互创造了对方:人类是自然演进的产物,自然是人类臆造的幻象。

As Henri Matisse said, “I close my eyes to see better.” To conceal is to enlighten. The Shade Temple, being simple and elegant as it is, is a stage or backdrop to balance the artificial and the natural, further helping visitors to reflect on themselves. The screen creates a field that strengthens the existing genius loci while the site in turn renders the screen a spiritual monumentality. The artificial structure cannot, and should not replace nature, but only carefully locate and guide the strength of nature. After all, there is no prior division between human and nature, they construct each other: human is a result of natural evolution, and nature is an imaginary concept conjured by human.

 

 

6.

对皮拉内西监狱空间的三维重建 | 3D Reconstruction of Le Carceri d’Invenzione

研究项目,2015 秋
Research Project, Fall 2015

项目以三维建模还原皮拉内西监狱组图中的空间,展示出其复杂结构间错综的相互关系,并反过来用重建的三维空间模型导出与皮拉内西原作风格高度一致的二维图像。

The project three dimensionally reconstructs the spaces depicted in Piranesi’s famous Le Carceri d’Invenzione, revealing how their intriguing structures work together to create the sublime visual experience. The 3d model is then used to produce two dimensional images that highly emulates Piranesi’s original style.

▼皮拉内西,监狱系列图一,1761年。Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Le Carceri d’Invenzione, Plate 1, 1761 / 对监狱系列图一的重建,Reconstruction of Plate 1

   

▼皮拉内西,监狱系列图六,1761年。Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Le Carceri d’Invenzione, Plate 6, 1761 / 对监狱系列图六的重建,Reconstruction of Plate 6

   

▼重建获得的三维空间模型轴测图,Axonometric drawing of the 3D model for reconstruction

▼在重建的三维模型中捕获的皮拉内西式二维图像,Piranesian image captured in the reconstructed 3D model

When: 2013 – Current
Where: New York
Name: Boyuan Jiang 姜伯源
From: Beijing, China

School:
哥伦比亚大学
Columbia University

Office:
SHoP Architects、许李严建筑师事务所
SHoP Architects, ROCCO Design Architects

contact:
rbyjiang@gmail.com



发表评论

13 评论

  1. Profile photo of 永远回归
  2. 看到了不一样的思想深度,不同的视野,激动,佩服

  3. Profile Photo

    喜欢第一个项目

  4. Profile photo of 仝鸣

    眼界和思维确实和国内老一辈做建筑的不一样,感性和理性很美好地交合了。这么看来中国建筑的未来还是有希望的,如果中国建筑还把自己当作中国建筑的话~

  5. Profile Photo

    第一个项目所提到的讽刺意味真的很有意思 拔地而起的“形山”代替被历史淘汰的护城河的位置 是空间和时间上的双重震撼

  6. 皮拉内西的那个想很久了但是太懒没动过,居然真的有人做了,真的棒棒!

  7. 第一个项目好喜欢!

  8. 第一个项目的分析图效果做的太好了,很和风,可惜平常我想做却没有素材······

  9. Profile photo of 大魔王2000

    最后一个最有意思

  10. Profile Photo
  11. 早有耳闻姜大神。

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