匈牙利Szeged教堂改造项目 / 3H architecture

在妥善保护历史建筑遗存的同时代表现代建筑发声,相互交融的古典与现代结构、风格和建造技术

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非常感谢 3H architecture 予gooood分享以下内容。 Appreciation towards 3H architecture for providing the following description:

对历史建筑的干预设计是现代建筑业内公认的敏感议题,尤其在项目不仅涉及到对现状建筑的修复,同时还要在此基础上改造或是增加新的空间时。建筑师必须在过去与现在间找到平衡,在妥善保护历史建筑遗存的同时代表现代建筑发声,既不能让新建部分成为历史的无趣附庸,也不能让其喧宾夺主,掩盖历史的光辉。改造项目没有万能的解决方案,建筑师必须根据其具体状况,找到所有的问题与答案,而3H事务所今日在匈牙利东南部的Szeged教堂改造项目则成为了其中的典范。

In the international discourse on contemporary architecture it seems to be evident that intervention into historic buildings is always a sensitive issue. This is particularly the case when the project is not only a simple renovation, but there are alterations or additions to the original building – it is always difficult to find the balance between past and present, between the attitude of sheer preservation of a monument and the voice of contemporary architecture. Additions copying eariler times and contemporary impacts that ignore their context are the two extremities to avoid – the desireable solution lies somewhere in between. There is no ultimate recipe, the questions need to be asked and answered in every particular case. 3H architercture has refurbished the Cathedral of Szeged in southeastern Hungary and managed to find solutions worthy of note.

▽ Szeged教堂外观,external view

001-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

002-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

005-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

006-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged   007-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

小城Szeged长年经受洪水的困扰,在过去的数百年间经历过数次大型的重建。建筑师试图在着历史层次极其丰富的城市肌理中找到边界,并将新的精神元素带入到这个历史悠久的空间中。这座建于现代主义后期的教堂中古典与现代结构、风格和建造技术相互交融,而建筑师希望能够让这丰富的层次更明晰地展现在人们的面前。除了一般性的修复外,建筑师将来自不同时期的建构视作均等,而本次的新建部分也不过是再次添加的一重层次。行走其中,人们可以轻易感受到建筑师对建筑现状极其节制的改造,同时风格鲜明的新建部分也并没有脱离整个大环境,和谐地融入到整体之中。位于前方阶梯下的前台空间完美地展示着这个整体策略,交替错落的顶部光源与结构梁带来丰富的节奏变化,轻盈精巧,而阳光从楼梯的缝隙中穿过,均匀的洒落在空间中。

The city of Szeged is located in flooded area and underwent many reconstructions during its history. The challenge was to explore the border in the historically densely layered urban structure and bring new spirit to the long-used spaces. Being built at the dawn of modernism, the church is an interesting mixture of historical and modern structures, styles, and construction methods – the current architectural concept has made an attempt to clarify the relationship between the original building and the additional layers. Besides restoring the original conditions, the architects considered the building as an open artefact consisting of layers of different eras, to which they added the contemporary layer as equivalent in value. As a result, one can sense a gentle progress in the case of the alterations of the already excisting parts, while the newly constructed elements bear a strong contemporary touch, nonetheless relate to their context. The example of the new reception area below the front stairs shows that attitude perfectly: it has received a pure appearance made flowy by the rythmical allocation of the ceiling lights and structural beams, while sunlight filters through the slits of the main staircase.

▽ 地下空间入口,entrance of the new reception area below the front stairs

008-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

009-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 交替错落的顶部光源与结构梁带来丰富的节奏变化,rythmical allocation of the ceiling lights and structural beams

012-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

010-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 餐厅空间,canteen

014-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

013-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

建筑中需要协调的最大矛盾在于现代建筑与古典建筑对于装饰所持有的不同态度。自Adolf Loos以来,现代建筑逐渐除去了所有修饰性的元素,以结构和材料展示建筑最本质的美,而教堂内部华丽而色彩斑斓的饰面则显而易见地占了了现代美学的对立面。纵使当代建筑师不再固守于百年前教条般的拘谨原则,但与繁复装饰性元素的结合仍然成为了难题。在本次改造中建筑师并没有逃避这个问题,而是尝试掌控整体,例如在礼拜堂中,他们的设计变完全融入了原有的空间之中,同时也为严肃的近乎沉重的空间带来了一些活力。在新设计的祭坛中,建筑师用纯白的大理石雕刻出当地传统文化中的图形,实现了装饰与材料的结合。

The main contradiction that needed to be cleared was between modern and historical architecture’s relationship to ornament and decoration. The densely decorated interior of the cathedral stands in direct contrast with the modernist aesthethics, which got rid of any decoration since Adolf Loos and finds beauty in clearly visible structures and in the material itself. Although contemporary architecture does not stick rigidly to these century-old principles, applied decoration of the past is still alien to it. The main advantage of the current changes is that they did not ignore decoration entirely, but rather keep them under control: the additions in the liturgical space all fit into the context, show, however, a gentle shift towards a sleeker style – they bring a bit of relief into the thickness of the space. In case of the new furniture, the ornament is integrated into the material – the altar’s marble mass is covered with a lace-like sheet of the same material, perforated with a local folklore pattern.

▽ 礼拜堂空间,the liturgical space

024_1-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 纯白的大理石雕刻有当地传统文化中的图形,the altar’s marble mass is covered with a lace-like sheet of the same material

024-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged   027-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

025-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged   026-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

028-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

030-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged   031-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

而地窖之中,原本废弃的空间获得了重生,厚重的拱顶和柱廊刷上了白漆,交错的光与影给这古老的空间填上了一分简洁的现代美感。重整后的空间优雅而开阔,让重叠的柱廊与拱顶构成的拉丁十字平面更为明确。

In other spaces, like in the crypt an inverse solution comes into effect: the formerly abandoned spaces were given a new quality. The heavy pillars received unified white plastering and rhythmical illumination, the alteration of lignt and shadow gives contemporary aesthetics to the old space. By emptying the space, it has gained an elegant transparency, drawing attention to the latin cross floor plan reflected by impressive series of columns and arches.

▽ 地窖,the crypt

015-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

018-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

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020-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged   021-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 楼梯空间,staircase

022-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged   023-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

建筑师以有机的设计手法将现代需求置入到这个传统的空间之中,根据使用者的具体需要为建筑增添了精神层次以及具体的功能,而同时也并没有让空间之间彼此脱离,保证了建筑整体的完整性。

These solutions shape the spaces in an organic way toward the needs articulated in the present time – the refurbishment did not dissolve the building into fragments, but rather managed to develop it continually, adding meaning and functions relevant to contemporary users.

▽ 总平面图,site plan

032-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 地窖平面,crypt floor

033-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 礼拜堂平面,the liturgical floor

035-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 建筑立面,elevation

040-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 剖面,section

041-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 西侧塔楼平面,western tower floor

037-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 塔楼剖面,tower section

042-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

▽ 钟楼,domotor

038-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged1

039-refurbishment of the Cathedral of Szeged

Name of the project: Renovation of the Dome of Szeged
Site: Dóm tér 6, 6720 Szeged
Client: DÓM Developer and Touristic Service Provider Organization
Design Architects: Katalin Csillag and Zsolt Gunther (3h architecture) /László Váncza (Váncza Művek Studio)
Project Architects: Tamás Békesi, Zsuzsanna Kolláth and Orsolya Pataj
Project Team: Dorottya Garay-Kiss, Anna Sára Kiss, Zsombor Fehér, Zoltán Lang, Márk Váncza

Specialists
Structural Engineer: Balázs Puskás (TERRAPLAN’97 Mérnökiroda Kft.)
Sanitary Engineering: János Bukovics (G&B Plan Kft. Épületgépész Mérnökiroda)
Electrical Engineering: Gábor Kun (Hungaroproject Mérnökiroda Kft.)
Fire Protection Engeneering: Béla Nagy (Tűzterv Bt.)
Construction Details: Gergely Dobszay dr, László Kakassy dr (Kakassy és Társa Mérnöki Kft.)
Acoustics: Andor Fürjes (aQrate Kft.)
Landscape Architecture: Enikő Kapás (Departer Kft.)

Diagnostics
Preliminary work (art history): Ferenc Bor
Main Diagnostician Coordinator: Csaba Németh (3C Kft.)
Soil Mechanics: Endre Kelemen Ács (3C Kft.)
Structural Diagnostics: János Laczkovics (3C Kft.)
Building Structures: Gergely Dobszay dr, László Kakassy dr (Kakassy és Társa Mérnöki Kft.)
Picture–restorer and Glass Mosaic Diagnostics: Mária Brutyó, Kornélia Forrai, Ildikó Jeszeniczky
Main contractor: West Hungária Bau Építő Kft. and Kalotherm Zrt. konzorcium

Archeological and restoration work
Archeology: Orsolya Lajkó and József Szarka (Museum Móra Ferenc, Szeged)
Picture-restorer: Dóra Verebes and András Seres (MentArtis Kft.)
Lead-glass Restorer: László Hefter and Brúnó Hefter (Hefter Üveggaléria és Stúdió Kft.)
Glass Mosaic Restorer: Flóra Verebes and Ferdinánd Horváth (MentArtis Kft.)
Metal-restorer: Attila Páhi (Cellin-Art Kft.)
Wood-restorer: Mihály Győri (Framart Kft.)
Stone-restorer: Attila Kovács (Ancien Bt.)
Silicate-restorer: Klára Csáki (Csáki és Társa Bt.)
Planning – execution: 2012-2015

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  1. 深深地感受到建筑师的不容易与良苦用心,不过,对各个时期的简直风格的保护就仅仅凭借一个建筑恐怕孤掌难鸣,不知道周围的景观有没有可能助这个项目一臂之力

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