Tree Canopy Walkway at Kirstenbosch / mta

“魔法森林”上“梦幻浮桥”—-康斯坦博西植物园树冠走廊

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Photo © Adam Harrower

康斯坦博西植物园内被亲切地称为“非洲树蛇”或“树冠走廊”的森林桥梁现面向公众开放,游客在这里可以欣赏到从森林地面到树冠高度的非凡而独特的景观。这条长长的天桥本身也成了吸引游客的一大景点。如不精心设计和架设,这种大型结构在自然环境中将会十分突兀,因此建筑师尽量将这座蛇形天桥隐藏在周围景观中。以下是关于这座蛇形桥梁的几个常见问题。

The affectionately named “Boomslang”or Tree Canopy Walkway at Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden is now open to the public and offers visitors an unusual and unique view from forest floor to treetops – yet another reason to visit the Garden. A large structure like this could become quite obtrusive if not carefully designed and built, therefore utmost consideration was given to this by the architect with his objective to make the walkway as invisible in the landscape as possible.Below are some frequently asked questions that give an overview of this snake-like structure that runs through the treetops.

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在哪里?—位于依偎在普罗蒂花园下方的树木园内,山谷和音乐会草坪之上。

Where is it? –  It’s situated in the Arboretum (Enchanted Forest) which is nestled below the Protea Garden, above the Dell and above the Concert lawn.

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多长?—全长130m,蜿蜒穿梭于树木和枝干之间。 桥梁大致呈新月形,分别有两处与森林地表接触。最高点有12m(约3层楼高)。

How long is it? – It is 130m long and curves between the trees and through the branches.  It is roughly crescent-shaped and joins the forest floor in two different places within the arboretum.  Its highest point is 12m above the ground (approximately 3 stories).

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为什么建造这座桥梁、希望获得什么样的效果?—我们希望用一个非凡、独特且永恒的建筑来纪念100周年(1913-2013)。这么多年来,我们建造走廊的想法一直被搁置,100周年是将这个想法付诸实践的最佳契机。该项目的资金完全来自众多捐助者向康斯坦博西植物园的捐助,其中最主要的捐献者是Mary Mullins。“树冠走廊”引领人们来到树冠高度,欣赏平时几乎无法领略到的独特的生态景象。在这里,人们可以从高处体验森林、可以看到地面视野无法捕捉到的鸟类和其他动物、可以欣赏树木随风摇曳的动态景象、还可以看到树冠相交的情景。桥梁冲破树木,飞跃树梢,带来树顶观景的非凡感受,展现了开普敦城市和周围雄伟山脉的360度全景景观。

Why was it built and what do you hope to achieve by it? –  We wanted to celebrate our Centenary (1913-2013) with a project that would be spectacular, unique and long-lasting.  This walkway, which had been on the backburner for many years, fit all the criteria and was a perfect way to mark the event in Kirstenbosch with something permanent.  It was built purely from bequest money which has been left to Kirstenbosch by numerous donors, but predominantly Mary Mullins.  It is also a fantastic opportunity to take people into the treetops, a place with a unique ecology that is generally hard to get to.  From here people can experience the forest from high above the ground and also see birds and other animals that are generally hard to see otherwise.  One can experience tree dynamics – how the treetops move in the wind and how the crowns of the trees interact with one another.  The walkway then bursts through and above the canopy, giving you an impression of what it is like to be above the forest.  At this point, the walkway provides spectacular 360 degree vistas comprising Cape Town and the surrounding majestic mountain slopes.

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什么材料?— 完全由镀锌钢组件构成,这些组件由Prokon Services在其位于布莱克希思的工场内制作完成。每个部件长6m,至少喷涂了四层质量上乘的漆料,以抵御康斯坦博西潮湿的气候条件,延长使用寿命。扶手由产自西非的一种可持续性硬木—紫檀木(Padauk)制成;桥面由经上色处理的松木板条铺就而成。施工现场采用小型的起重机将部件架设在长长的支撑柱上,部件之间用螺栓连接起来。整座桥梁共用掉19.6吨钢材、消耗的8mmØ圆钢长度加起来可达5.3km!

What is it made of?  – It is made entirely of galvanized steel components which have been constructed offsite by Prokon Services at their workshop in Blackheath.  Each component is 6m long and are painted with no less than four coats of the best quality paints available to prolong its life in the damp Kirstenbosch environment.  The handrails are made of a wood called Padauk, a sustainably harvested hardwood from West Africa; and decking consists of stained treated pine slats.  On site, the components were hoisted by a small crane, bolted together and mounted on top of long support columns. A total of 19.6 tons of steel was used.  A total of 5.3km of 8mmØ round bar was used!

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建造时间表?—2012年底正式规划;2013年6月铸造柱基础;2013年8月异地铸造钢构架;2013年11月现场施工。从现场调研到现场施工大约持续了1年。

为什么会延期开放?—第一次建造任何类似的复杂结构都会遇到很多不可预知的障碍。事实证明,拼接大型构架比想象中困难得多,而在树木园这种遍布树木和枝丫的敏感区域内架设构架更是难上加难。首先,在枝叶繁茂的森林内操纵起重机就是一个巨大的挑战;其次,漆料喷涂和木工也十分繁琐而艰巨。这些都需要在树冠高度开展作业。大型扶手需要契合走廊的轮廓和波线,因此其组装和造型工作格外复杂,非常耗费时间。每个扶手约包含15块硬紫檀木条,这些木条通过层压、造型以符合钢筋栏杆的形状。

How long did it take? – Planning started seriously in late 2012.  Initial casting of the column foundations commenced in June 2013. Construction of the steel framework commenced offsite in August 2013, and the onsite construction commenced in November 2013.  Roughly a year since the first land survey was done.

What were the reasons for the delay in opening:  As with any first-time complex construction such as this, there were numerous unforeseen obstacles. Fitting the giant pieces of the skeleton together proved more difficult than anticipated, especially within a building site as sensitive as the arboretum which is essentially a forest of tree trunks and branches.  Manoeuvring a mobile crane within this space was a big challenge.  Both the painting and the carpentry were long and tedious jobs, all having to be conducted high above ground level.  The assembly and shaping of the magnificent handrails was an exceptionally complex and time-consuming process which had to match the curves and undulations of the walkway.  Each handrail consisted of about 15 slats of hard Padauk wood which had to be laminated together and molded and shaped to fit the steel railings.

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登上这座蛇形天桥需要收费吗?— 完全免费,植物园门票即可。

园区开放/关闭时间?—08:00am -19:00pm (9月~次年3月);08:00-18:00(4月~8月)

是否有无障碍通道?—有,但是通向树木园的无障碍通道存在陡坡,建议在有人帮助的情况下前往。

Is there a cost to walk on it? – It’s absolutely free to walk on.  A garden entry ticket is all that is required.

Opening/Closing times of the garden: September to March 08:00am -19:00pm, and from April to August 08:00-18:00 everyday

Is it wheelchair accessible?:  Yes, it is.  The access to the arboretum, however, consists of steep paths and assistance is advisable.
 
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康斯坦博西植物园依傍着桌山,面积达560公顷以上,是世界最早的植物园,园内只栽种南非原产植物,尤其是南非的国花霸王花,是PROTEA的一种。在这里一年四季都可看到美丽的花草树木,并体会一种难得的人与自然的和谐。

园区里的设计是依各种植物的生长环境及作用来规划,例如药用植物区,森林植物区,香草,滨水植物区等等,植物前多半设有名牌,简单明了。同时,康斯坦博西植物园也是观赏开普地区最著名的灌木植物的好地方。此外,植物园设有很大的商店,售有南非特有花卉的种子以及园艺书籍,卡片和传统手工艺品,很值得一看。

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Extra info about the arboretum:

Kirstenbosch’s little-known arboretum is in the heart of the garden – nestled between famous parts of the garden, like the Protea garden, the Dell, Mathews Rockery and the Concert lawn, this relatively young part of the 100–year- old garden is where some of Southern Africa’s remarkable tree flora are exhibited.

Kirstenbosch interpretation office Alice Notten, Kirstenbosch’s first envisaged (in about 2005) some kind of elevated viewing deck, perhaps incorporating a walkway of some sort that would take visitors up into the tree canopies.  The Kirstenbosch Centenary rekindled interest in this project and so the boomslang was born in 2013.

The walkway encounters many interesting trees en route: some old 150 year old trees that predate the garden like Hard Pear – (Olinia ventosa) and Cape Saffron (Cassine peragua), the 100 year old Wild Banana (Strelitzia nicolai).  Other younger trees include White Stinkwood (Celtis africana), Cape Beech (Rapaneamelanophloes), Coral Tree (Erythrinacaffra), Myrtle Quince (Cryptocaryamyrtifolia) and the Terblanz Beech from the protea family (Faurea macnaughtonii).

Technically speaking, this entire, elegantly designed bridge structure is a complex three dimensional truss, spanning 12 metres between columns. Kirstenbosch is a very natural garden.  We were very aware that a large structure like this could become quite obtrusive if not carefully designed and built.  Utmost consideration was given to this by the architect with his objective to make the walkway as invisible in the landscape as possible. Initially there were many critics, but all who have seen the bridge have given overwhelmingly positive reports.

Architect: Mark Thomas and Christopher Bisset of Mark Thomas Architects
Structural Engineers: Henry Fagan of Henry Fagan consulting engineers and Andrew Rich of Prokon Services.

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发表评论

28 评论

  1. 跟环境融为一体的感觉真是超棒

  2. 摄影师取景也很重要,这东西放中国得有集散地才可以,不然很挤的。。

  3. 记得土人用这样的空中廊道很多,视觉很大气动感,空间体验感也很心旷神怡。施工对环境的干扰也较小,简约却纯粹实用的设计。

  4. 好的景观设计还是需要好的工程方完成施工,施工质量也是相当重要的一直环节,干净利落的施工可以增强景观效果。

  5. 让人很想上去走一走啊,和环境也很搭,感觉选址高低考虑也周到,施工也不过,很细致

  6. 铺的松木不是很容易变形吗?

  7. 好酷呀

  8. 做的很好和做为恶的环境很融合

  9. 看到这么棒的设计激动不已,真心希望国内可以借鉴学习,只有把这些优秀作品引入身边的生活,才会让人们感受到设计的神奇和美,才会有更多的目光来关注设计,让城市和自然更美好!

  10. 这是近期最深得我心的一个项目

  11. 木材取自哪里?

  12. 作为画面中唯一的人造物,强烈的对比感是成功的关键。如果背景不是茂密的树林和开敞的天际,而是国内的高楼大厦,那么很难出现这样的冲击力(比如徐家汇公园)。所以,场地比建筑本身更重要吧。

  13. 感觉挺不错,我这边的植物园可以借鉴啊

  14. 更容易的去感受自然

  15. 感觉太棒了。

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