Tudor公寓,肯尼亚蒙巴萨 / Urko Sanchez Architects

阶梯式露台带来惊艳的全海景视野

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非常感谢 Urko Sanchez Architects 予gooood分享以下内容。 Appreciation towards Urko Sanchez Architects for providing the following description:

该项目包含肯尼亚蒙巴萨岛Tudor Creek公寓中的14套。建筑带有格栅窗户的结构外壳使其兼备了私密性和极佳的通风和采光。在建筑师看来,这间公寓充分利用了户外空间的生活体验,在与自然紧密相连的同时与周边的其他私人住宅保持了和谐的步调。

The project consists in 14 apartments in Tudor Creek, Mombasa-Kenya. Characterized by a moucharabiah structural shell, it is distinct with its search for privacy and optimized natural ventilation and light. With our vision, the apartments benefit from the experience of outdoor living, contact with nature and the integration of the surroundings into each private home.

▼建筑外观,an external view of the building

 

位置与环境 | Location & context

蒙巴萨位于肯尼亚东岸,是全国第二大城市。这座多文化中心以贸易和精湛的手工艺闻名,其地属热带草原气候,拥有众多纵横的河湾。项目所在的场地Tudor正位于海港的沿岸,身处蒙巴萨岛北部这一得天独厚的地理位置。在繁茂的绿树的环绕下,建筑自然而然地融入了宁静祥和的周边环境之中。建筑师与委托人进行了密切的合作,以期在对环境干扰最小的情况下,就地取材,建造一座与场地斜坡相适应的公寓建筑。

Located on the east coast of Kenya, Mombasa is the second-largest city in the country. A multicultural and strategic centre known for trading and skilled craftsmen, it is characterized by a savanna tropical climate and a land crossed by creeks. Tudor, our intervention zone, is situated on the creek´s waterfront, which is a privileged location north of Mombasa Island. With lush vegetation all around and a serene neighbourhood, the project naturally fits into this environment. We worked closely with the client to create a building with minimal environmental impact, by adapting to the land’s natural slope, and by using locally available materials and know-how.

▼建筑位于海港沿岸,the building is situated on the creek´s waterfront

▼鸟瞰图,aerial

 

设计要求及条件限制 | Requirements & Situation Constraints

通过设置露台和阳台,使公寓楼内外的视野最大化。环境友好:自然通风的空间:被动制冷;光照充分。这是一项挑战,因为同时还要避免日晒;雨水收集系统。基于当地缺乏水资源;节能的太阳能加热系统;寿命持久的当地材料。保证建筑在临街方向上的私密性,以及周围居民的私密性。该项目位于一幢公寓楼和一栋有可能进行大规模开发的私人住宅之间,这也是使用具有滤过性的建筑外壳的一个原因。

Maximize the scenery from within and outside the apartments, notably via terraces and balconies. Environmentally friendly: Naturally aerated spaces: passive cooling; Well-lit spaces, a challenge, as light must come in without the sun heat; Rainwater collection, driven by water scarcity; Solar-heated water for energy saving; Local, long lasting materials. Ensure privacy regarding the proximity of the road, and that of the neighbours in the adjacent plots: a building of flats on one side, a private house on the other with a risk of major residential development. This was a drive for creating the filtering shell.

▼设计的主旨是通过设置露台和阳台使公寓的视野最大化,the design maximizes the scenery via terraces and balconies

▼伸向海洋的露台,terraces and balconies stretching to the water

 

方案 | Proposal

Tudor公寓是一个非常具有创新性的建筑项目,它以丰富的斯瓦希里(Swahili)设计为灵感源泉,展示了对蒙巴萨历史的欣赏和眷恋。该项目旨在将蒙巴萨的过去、现在与未来和谐地联系起来。项目方案包括14间私人公寓的设计,每间公寓都将拥有惊艳的全景港湾视野,其具有象征性的体量融合了建筑设计上的创新、最高标准的表面装饰、豪华舒适的当代生活方式以及对当地自然遗产的尊重。考虑到倾斜的场地及其狭窄的形状,建筑师决定将建筑对环境的影响降至最低。三座呈阶梯状排布的独特的露台式住宅缓解了建筑与低处港湾之间形成的陡峭坡度。屋顶露台上,朝向港湾的具有渗透性的木制格栅在过滤阳光的同时带来了空气流通。这些露台通过侧面伸向港湾的阶梯方可到达,最低处设有综合健身房,随后通向一个无边界泳池。建筑与周围住宅以及街道之间的距离皆经过了考量,使建筑对环境的干预维持在一个既有存在感,又不会在场地中过于显眼的程度。最终,一座有着保护性外壳的、临街且能俯瞰港湾、设有顶楼套房的公寓大楼得以被建造出来。

Tudor Apartments is a development that prides itself in its innovative architecture, showing its attachment to Mombasa’s history by borrowing inspiration from the rich traditions of Swahili design. This development project is committed to harmonizing Mombasa’s past, present and future. The proposal is an intimate development of 14 apartments, all offering breath-taking panoramic views on the creek. We developed aniconic building, with innovation of architectural designs, highest standards of product finishes, luxurious, contemporary lifestyle, and respect for the natural and local heritage.The plot’s slope and its narrow shape guided our design to minimize the building’s impact. The steep drop towards the creek, on the lower part of the plot, was saved with three distinct and unique patio houses, stepped one into the other. On top of filtering light, the patios allow ventilation via permeable wood lattices facing the water. They are accessible via lateral stairs that descend towards the creek, passing by an integrated gym at the bottom, and arriving to an infinity pool. A measured distance from the neighbours and the road give the building a well-weighted impact, for it to be present but not overwhelming in the scenery. This way, the apartments block, enveloped with its protective skin, rises facing the road, overlooking the creek, and topped with a penthouse.

▼临街立面,facade on the street

 

境特征 | Environmental features

该项目谨慎地将红树林和其它一些树木原封不动地保留在场地之中。此外,被动式的自然通风也是设计中的一个指导性的主题。海洋为公寓内部带来了空气对流,使微风通过带有遮蔽的露台、木制格栅以及环绕在四周的外墙结构进入室内。底部住宅的天井实现了双重的空气流通:木制格栅将来自海岸的空气引入室内和天井本身;两面叠加的格栅则为住宅和假吊顶带来通风,同时使楼顶露台免受阳光的曝晒。天井和露台中的植物更带来清新和生气盎然之感。由于建筑与排污系统缺乏连接,建筑师额外设置了一个沼气池,用于在废水排放至海洋之前对其进行处理。雨水收集系统还提供了花园用水。

The development was careful to leave the mangroves and other trees intact on site. In addition, natural, passive ventilation was a guiding theme in the project design. In the apartments, cross ventilation is possible from the sea, through the shaded terraces, to the interiors, via the integrated wooden lattices and through the surrounding envelope. In the distinct bottom houses, the patios allow double ventilation: wood lattices allow air to circulate from the seaside through the interiors and to the patios; two superimposed lattices allow ventilation for both the house and the false ceiling, to avoid it transmitting heat from the sun on the top terraces. Moreover, vegetation is integrated in the patio and on the terraces, offering freshness and greenery. In the absence of sufficient connection to the sewage system, we integrated a bio-digester for treating used waters before releasing them into nature, that is to say, in the creek water. Furthermore, rainwater collection provides water for care for the garden.

▼露台内部,in the terrace

▼室内空间,internal views

▼叠加的格栅为住宅和假吊顶带来通风,superimposed lattices allow ventilation for both the house and the false ceiling

▼厨房,kitchen

 

构表面:代式格栅窗户 | Structural skin: contemporary muchrabiah

经过对不同传统图案的研究,建筑师为公寓楼设计了一个格栅式的表面,不仅为建筑与周边环境提供了私密性,更为住宅带来了滤过式的自然光。格栅表皮包围着整个建筑,只留出北部的立面,使临海的阳台能够看到惊艳的海港全景。这层表皮结构所呈现的建筑性要得益于工程师团队。在肯尼亚,能够实现这样一个前所未有过的新奇结构,离不开当地及国外工程师们的携手努力,以及工地现场那些无比专注和投入的钢铁工人,他们在不使用任何技术工具的情况下制作出了完美无瑕的弯钢筋。建筑的这种表皮还引起了当地居民在窗户上安装格栅的风潮。室内空间的屏障和外墙结构成为了阳光和高温的第一层过滤网,手工的木制遮阳窗格更能为室内带来第二重防护。这样一来,不但采光变得更加充裕,室温也得以降低。

We designed the mucharabiah skin following a study of different traditional patterns. It serves for the privacy in relation to the surroundings, and for the filtered, natural light we wanted for the houses. This skin wraps itself around the apartments block, leaving its Northern façade free, with balconies facing the sea and taking full advantage of the breath-taking scenery. Moreover, the skin was rendered entirely structural thanks to the engineering team. A novelty to Kenya, such structural skin was possible thanks to local and international engineers working hand by hand, and to the steel workers on-site who managed, by dedication and care, flawless bar bending work without access to any technology. Spatially, this skin also redirects people’s local tendency to put bars on their windows, becoming itself the border and the filter. Sometimes the direct limit of the internal house spaces, the shell is at other times a first filter of sunlight and heat, doubled by internal handcrafted wood-lattice shutters. In this way, light is generous and heat is broken down.

▼现代式的格栅窗表皮,the contemporary muchrabiah as the structural skin

 

手工艺,技术与团队协作 | Crafts, techniques, team work

除了白色的抹灰墙面,建筑还使用了一种源自拉穆岛的mtomo珊瑚石覆层技术,这种材料能够通过其表面的孔洞保持热容量。木工工艺的完美实现得益于蒙巴萨岛和拉穆岛当地艺术家精湛的手工雕刻技术。他们还为露台住宅制作了现场浇注的水磨石地面。

In addition to white, plaster finishing, the project uses mtomo finish, a coral stone cladding technique original to Lamu that helps keep thermal capacity thanks to the porosity of the coral stone. Wood work was realised entirely thanks to outstanding hand carving by local artisans from Mombasa and Lamu. Furthermore, artisans produced in situ terrazzo for the flooring of the patio houses.

▼以白色抹灰墙面为主的露台和天井,the terrace and patio with white plaster finishing

▼轴测图,axon

 

▼方案成型,design process

▼公寓气候分析,apartment diagram

▼光照研究,light study

▼场地平面图,site plan

▼露台层平面图,patio plan

▼平面图,floor plan

▼立面图,elevation

▼剖面图,section

Photo credits: Javier Callejas

More: Urko Sanchez Architects 



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